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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Heungjin Ryu conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Kirsty E. Graham performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, english grammar checking.

Tetsuya Sakamaki contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, managements for the field site and works.

Takeshi Furuichi contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, funding and managements for the field site and works.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

1. Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research of the D.R. Congo, and 2. Research permissions (MIN.ESURS/SG-RST/026/2014

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

1. Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research of the D.R. Congo, and 2. Research permissions (MIN.ESURS/SG-RST/026/2014

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The research in this article did not generate any raw data.

Funding

JSPS Asia-Africa Science Platform Program (2012-2014 to Furuichi) provided funding for the work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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