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Supplemental Information

Image Undistortion and Calibration

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-1

Raw speed data for the unshod (n=4) and shod (n=4) conditions

Column A shows the conditions. Column B lists the name and date of the steps. Column C lists the horse’s hip height in meters. Column D lists the frame rate of the Sony camera used for the speed calculations. Columns E and F list the start and end frame of each trial and each condition. Column G shows the difference between the start and end frame (i.e. number of frames elapsed). Column H shows the time in seconds and was calculated by dividing 1 over the camera frame rate (column D), multiplied by the frame difference (column G). Column I shows the distance that a marker placed on the middle of the body of the horse travelled between the start and end frames of the steps (columns E and F). Column J lists the velocity calculations per trial and condition. Velocity was measured by dividing the distance (column I) over the time (column H). Column K lists gravity at 9.81ms-2 and column L lists the Froude number per trial and condition. Rows J6 and J 12 show the average velocity for the unshod and shod condition respectively. Rows L6 and L12 show the average Froude number for the unshod and shod conditions respectively.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-2

Ground reaction force (GRF) data in Newtons for the unshod (n=4) and shod (n=4) conditions

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-3

Degrees of motion for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints for the shod (n=4) and unshod (n=4) conditions about the flexion-extension axis

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-4

Raw von Mises stress data (MPa) for each condition and each bone segment

Bone segments are defined as the proximal phalanx (P1), intermediate phalanx (P2) and distal phalanx (P3). All stress data were exported from the external and internal nodes of the midshaft from homologous locations between bones and conditions as per Figure S3.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-5

The position of the custom-designed calibration cube used during the fluoroscopy experiments to calibrate the 3D space in the XROMM analysis

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-6

Loading and boundary locations for the P1, P2 and P3 bones (see Methods: Loads and constraints)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-7

Regional definitions (in red) for the P1 (A), P2 (B) and P3 (C) bones

All external and internal nodes of the midshaft were selected and nodal von Mises stresses were exported for the comparisons within homologous bones and both the shod and unshod conditions.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-8

Animation of the shod horse during walking (Trial 9)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-9

Animation of the unshod horse during walking (Trial 54)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1779v1/supp-10

Additional Information

Competing Interests

John R Hutchinson is an Academic Editor for PeerJ.

Author Contributions

Olga Panagiotopoulou conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jeffery W Rankin conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stephen M Gatesy analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Hyab Mehari Abraha analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jan Janzekovic analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

John R Hutchinson conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The study was reviewed and approved by the Royal Veterinary College’s Ethics and Welfare Committee (approval number URN 2011 1094).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw XROMM data will be uploaded in the Brown XROMM depository. All other raw data are made available as Supplementary Data.

Funding

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Project Grant (BB/H002782/1) to JRH and RW. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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