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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Nav Raj Adhikari conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper, taking trait observations and measurements of SPAD while crops were standing, harvesting and shelling mood..

Surya Kant Ghimire reviewed drafts of the paper.

Shrawan Kumar Sah reviewed drafts of the paper.

Keshab Babu Koirala performed the experiments.

Patent Disclosures

The following patent dependencies were disclosed by the authors:

Patent: Frequency distribution, graph and tables of SPAD measure of the e1 leaf of the maize are the patent of Mr. N R Adhikari (2015) on October 30, 2015 for Average and frequency distribution of SPAD to PeerJ Preprint.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The research in this article did not generate any raw data.


The University Grant Commission of Nepal funded small research grants (385/2011) for the PhD research program of the first author Dr NR Adhikari. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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