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Age distribution, length/height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ), and Weight for Length Z-score (WLZ) and for children with different clinical nutritional status

Age distribution, length/height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ), and Weight for Length Z-score (WLZ) and for children with different clinical nutritional status. Z-scores based on the WHO-2006 Child Growth Standards[15].

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-1

Three months incidence of kwashiorkor according to age in months in intervals of six months

Incidence of kwashiorkor (y-axis) against age in months (x-axis). Black dots indicate age of those children which developed kwashiorkor

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-2

Consumption of different food items in the survey round preceding the development of kwashiorkor and non-development of kwashiorkor and development of marasmus

Consumption of different food items in the survey round preceding the development of kwashiorkor (n = 37) and non-development of kwashiorkor (n = 8108) and development of marasmus (n=374) in children between 6 and 50 months of age. * denotes p-value < 0.05, while** denotes p-value<0.01 with the value estimated using 2-sample test for equality of proportions with continuity correction as implemented in the prop test in R

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-3

The coefficients for the non-proportional hazard model with person moments sampled from the entire population

The Age variable is a transformation based on the distribution of kwashiorkor across age. T is a variable that describes the duration of consuming a food item containing β-Carotene. PaSV is a variable that combines papaya, other vegetables and sweet potatoes and weighted by the β-Carotene content of 100 g of the item. The Height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ) are based on the WHO-2006 Child Growth Standards

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-4

Risk reduction for developing kwashiorkor reduction of consuming β-Carotene rich products according to age in months

Dotted line is risk reduction after two months, dashed line after four months, and solid line after six months. Panel a) shows risk reduction for a child with a Height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ) of minus five, b) for a child with HAZ of minus three, and c) a child with HAZ of zero. HAZ-scores are based on the WHO-2006 Child Growth Standards[15].

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-5

The coefficients for the non-proportional hazard model with reference persons moments drawn from persons developing marasmus

The age variable is based on the distribution of kwashiorkor across age. T is a variable that describes the duration of consuming a food item containing β-Carotene. PaSV is a variable that includes papaya, other vegetables and sweet potatoes weighted by the β-Carotene content of 100 g of the item. Height-for-Age Z-score (HAZ) are based on the WHO-2006 Child Growth Standards[15].

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.119v1/supp-6

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

Author Contributions

Hallgeir Kismul analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper.

Jan Van den Broeck conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Torleif Markussen Lunde analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Ethical approval for the Bwamanda study had been granted by the University of Leuven’s Tropical Childcare Health Working Group

Funding

The study was funded by Nutricia Research Foundation. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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