"PeerJ Preprints" is a venue for early communication or feedback before peer review. Data may be preliminary.

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

View peer-reviewed version

A newer version of this Preprint is available: View the latest version

Additional Information

Competing Interests

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Author Contributions

Grace Gachanja conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Gary J Burkholder analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Aimee Ferraro analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Ethics approval was received from the Kenyatta National Hospital Research Standards and Ethics Committee (Approval # P373/10/2010) located in Nairobi Kenya, and the Walden University Institutional Review Board (Approval # 11-10-10-03904).


No funding was received for this study.

Add your feedback

Before adding feedback, consider if it can be asked as a question instead, and if so then use the Question tab. Pointing out typos is fine, but authors are encouraged to accept only substantially helpful feedback.

Some Markdown syntax is allowed: _italic_ **bold** ^superscript^ ~subscript~ %%blockquote%% [link text](link URL)
By posting this you agree to PeerJ's commenting policies
  Visitors   Views   Downloads