CRISPR-Cas9 may restore the balance of hormones affected by the frequency of DNA methylation sites and a decrease of commensal bacteria
- Subject Areas
- Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Synthetic Biology
- Microbiome, CRISPR Microbes, DNA Methylation, Epigenetics, Microflora, Cancer, Promoter Sites, CpG Islands, Homeostasis, Cas9 Nuclease
- © 2019 Hillman
- This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ Preprints) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
- Cite this article
- 2019. CRISPR-Cas9 may restore the balance of hormones affected by the frequency of DNA methylation sites and a decrease of commensal bacteria. PeerJ Preprints 7:e27509v2 https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.27509v2
In this review, it is suggested that there are connections between hormonal changes, the frequency of DNA methylation, and disease. The commensal microbes of the gut may also affect the production of those hormones. Short Chain Fatty Acids, produced from gut microbiota glucose metabolism, like butyrate, propionate, folate, and acetate act as ligands that bind to G-coupled protein receptors. For example, folate from Bifidobacterium donates a methyl for synthesizing S-adenosylmethionine or SAM, which then donates a methyl to the enzymes of DNA methylation, acting as a substrate. The effects of hormones on DNA methylation was reviewed. Increased progesterone can produce breast cancer by lessening DNA methylation allowing progesterone molecules to bind DNA, amplifying gene expression. Through measuring the frequency of DNA methylation perhaps breast cancer can be more readily identified, diagnosed, and treated. The intended purpose for this review is to propose the possibility of applying CRISPR-Cas9 methods to correct and restore the balance of hormones through epigenetic means. In this review, 1) the effects of microbes on hormonal balance, 2) the connection between hormones and DNA Methylation, 3) cancer and DNA methylation, 4) measuring DNA methylation, and 5) applying CRISPR methods will be discussed.
This is a preprint submission to PeerJ Preprints.This is the updated version. The title and abstract were changed. I am submitting my preprint after my peer-reviewed version was rejected from PeerJ.
An elucidation of the links between hormones, DNA methylation, the microbiome, and disease to restore homeostasis to each component through the Genomic Engineering of CRISPR microbes
We reviewed the effects of hormones on DNA methylation. If the microbiome regulates both hormones and DNA methylation, then perhaps through the microbiome diseases can be more readily identified, diagnosed, modeled, and treated. Our purpose for this review, was to find the links between each of the three factors, hormones, DNA methylation, and bacteria, in order to find possible ways to genetically manipulate each into equilibrium to maybe provide alternative diagnosis protocols and treatments for disease.
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