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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The author declares that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Darren S Proppe conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper, emily Finch, Dean Pettinga, Jenna Kennedy.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

All projects were approved by the Calvin College Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

This submission is a conference abstract and was used as a conceptual overview and research summary rather than a pointer to any particular data set.


Funding was provided by Calvin College, the Au Sable Institute, Michigan Space Grant Consortium, and the Pierce Cedar Creek Institute. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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