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Supplemental Information

PRISMA checklist

The need for the meta-analysis is discussed in the Introduction.

The meta-analysis is described in the Materials and Methods.

The results of the meta-analysis are discussed in the Results section.

The discussion of the meta-analysis is discussed in the Discussion.

The funding for the meta-analysis is mentioned in the online submission form.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2200v1/supp-1

PRISMA diagram

Data were collected from two studies, which spanned three manuscripts (one manuscript built upon another). Therefore, the sample size has typically been stated as "two studies" for meta-analysis in the diagram, rather than "three manuscripts."

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2200v1/supp-2

Mayfield et al. PeerJ data

All values represent z-scores, and not raw data. The figures generated from each worksheet are listed at the bottom of the respective worksheets.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2200v1/supp-3

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Anderson B Mayfield conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Chii-Shiarng Chen contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, provided laboratory space and facilities.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Kenting National Park (Taiwan) permit 0992900398 to Dr. Tung-Yung Fan (2010).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a supplementary file.


The National Science Foundation (NSF) of the United States of America provided funding to ABM via an international postdoctoral research fellowship (NSF-OISE-0852960). ABM was also funded by a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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