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Supplemental Information

Soil N, P, C, pH. Soil nutrients and pH

Soil nitrogen (%) and phosphorus content (mg kg-1), and soil pH (mean ± 1 standard error (SE)) across fenced treatments only, and in Mkambathi Nature Reserve, one year following nutrient additions.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2078v1/supp-2

Empirical and simulated spatial model parameters of biomass

Spatial model parameters [range (3* φ), sill (σ2), nugget (τ2), and noise to signal ratio (τ2/(τ2 + σ2)] of empirical and simulated biomass across treatments. Sill and nugget values are scaled (0-1) to facilitate comparisons across treatments.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2078v1/supp-3

Empirical spatial model parameters of vegetation and soil nutrients

Parameters of the empirical spatial model of vegetation phosphorus and nitrogen (%), soil phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), and soil (C) using maximum likelihood analysis across experimental plots in Mkambathi Nature Reserve, one year following nutrient fertilization. nd=not defined.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2078v1/supp-4

Disc Pasture Meter calibration

Results of the linear regression to calibrate disc pasture meter (DPM) readings to vegetation biomass (n=60).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2078v1/supp-5

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Erica A.H. Smithwick conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Douglas C. Baldwin performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Kusum J. Naithani analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

South Africa Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency, Permit #RA0081

USDA APHIS Permit to import plant species for research purposes PDEP11-00029

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a Supplemental Dataset.


This research was made possible through support from the National Science Foundation-Division of Environmental Biology grant (NSF-DEB 1045935) and a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates grant and to E.A.H. Smithwick and The Penn State Earth and Mineral Sciences Deike Research Grant. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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