Purpose: Belief conflict has been hypothesized to contribute to increased stress and burnout syndrome among healthcare workers. However, tests on this hypothesis have been limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of belief conflict on stress and burnout syndrome in healthcare workers using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method: A sample of 488 participants (4.3% physicians, 32.4% nurses, 16.2% occupational therapists, 10.7% physical therapists, 36.4% other) responded to a questionnaire based on the Assessment of Belief Conflict in Relationship-14 (ABCR-14), Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), and Japanese Burnout Scale (JBS). These data were examined using descriptive statistics and a causal sequence model. Results : The hypothesized model exhibited an excellent model fit (RMSEA = 0.041, CFI = 0.937, TLI = 0.933). The results suggested that belief conflict has positive causal effects on stress and burnout syndrome: standardized total effect = 0.676 (S.E. = 0.041, Est . /S.E. = 16.334, p-value = 0.000, 95% CI = 0.411; 0.646), standardized total indirect effect = 0.221 (S.E. = 0.031, Est . /S.E. = 7.066, p-value = 0.000, 95% CI = 0.115; 0.231), standardized direct effect = 0.455 (S.E. = 0.048, Est . /S.E. = 9.497, p-value = 0.000, 95% CI = 0.257; 0.455). Conclusion: This study indicated that healthcare workers suffer stress and burnout related to belief conflict. Therefore, assessment of belief conflict in healthcare workers, followed by appropriate intervention where indicated, would be beneficial in preventing stress and burnout.