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Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a diverse group of gene regulatory factors that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression in response to various stimuli during brain development and differentiation. Subsets of ncRNAs and miRNAs in particular, are very specifically expressed within the central nervous system and participate in the regulation of important brain functions. miRNAs are essential for the postmitotic survival of neurons, and therefore might play a role in neuroprotection. A number of miRNAs have been reported to be dysregulated in several neurodegenerative diseases implying that they can contribute to pathogenesis. Furthermore, in light of the neuroprotective properties of some miRNAs, these small RNA species may themselves be the focus for drug development. Here, we review recent studies that imply a link between miRNA role in the regulation of ubiquitine-proteasome pathways and neurodegeneration and discuss how increased knowledge of miRNAs might serve the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
This review article is a summary of ideas based on previous studies and represents solely the author's views on the subject of miRNAs role in the regulation of protein degradation during neurodegeneration.