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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Kostas Ganias conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The present study involves routine biometric measurements done in surveys of small pelagic fishes. No relevant permit was required neither in my department (School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) nor in the Institute (IPIMAR, Portugal) that collected this data.


The present work was operated within the framework of IPIMAR's acoustic surveys funded by the Portuguese sampling program integrated in the EU Data Collection Regulation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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