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Additional Information

Competing Interests

Richard A Adegbola is an employee of GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines.

Author Contributions

Chinelo Ebruke conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Anna Roca conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Uzochukwu Egere contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ousainou Darboe contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Philip C Hill conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Brian Greenwood conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Brendan W Wren conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Richard A Adegbola conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Martin Antonio conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Approval for this study was obtained from the Joint Medical Research Council (MRC) / Gambia Government Ethics Committee, and the Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK (SCC number 1032, ISRCTN 51695599). The conduct of the trial was guided by a Data Safety and Monitoring Board, and community and individual consent was obtained from study participants.

DNA Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding the deposition of DNA sequences:

http://www.mlst.net/

Funding

Support for Chinelo Ebruke’s PhD studentship and research costs was provided by the Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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