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Additional Information

Competing Interests

J Gregory Caporaso was partially employed by Argonne National Laboratory while this study was in progress.

Author Contributions

Gilberto E Flores conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

J Gregory Caporaso conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jessica B Henley performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jai Ram Rideout performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Daniel Domogala performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

John Chase analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jonathan W Leff performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Antonio Gonzalez analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rob Knight conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Robert R Dunn conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Noah Fierer conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

All volunteers were made aware of the nature of this project and gave written consent in accordance with protocols approved by each University's Institutional Review Board (IRB) (UCB 409.13; NAU 12.0169; NCSU 2443). Per IRB regulations, volunteers were able to drop out of the study at any time and were not required to answer any or all survey questions.

DNA Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding the deposition of DNA sequences:

Sequence data and accompanying de-identified metadata has been deposited in the EMBI under accession number (ERP005150-ERP005153) and can also be found in the QIIME Database under the study ID (will add ID prior to publication) (http://www.microbio.me/qiime/).

Funding

Computational support was provided by an Amazon Web Services research grant to JGC and RK. Support for YVB, AG, and RK came from the National Institutes of Health, the Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Support for JR came in part from a grant from Arizona's Technology and Research Initiative Fund to JGC. RRD was supported by grant #52006933 to NC State University from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute through the Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program (http://www.hhmi.org/grants/office/undergrad/). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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