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Additional Information

Competing Interests

We declare no competing interests related to this submission.

Author Contributions

Asa Johannesen conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Alison M Dunn reviewed drafts of the paper, provided feedback and helpful comments before and during field work.

Lesley J Morrell contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, provided feedback on methodology and advice during data collection.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

As experiments with fish fall outside of the remit of the University of Leeds Ethical Board and no licensed procedures were used, this study was not subject to ethical review.

However, laboratory experiments were carried out in accordance with University of Leeds guidelines and in agreement with Home Office licensed technical staff at the animal facility. Similarly, field experiments were carried out in accordance with local laws and regulations. Great care was taken to ensure optimal welfare for all fish involved in this study.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding the deposition of related data:

The full dataset is on FigShare and will become public once/if the paper is published.


This work was funded by the Faroese Research Council as part of a PhD stipend for Asa Johannesen. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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