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Additional Information

Competing Interests

There are no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Christopher N Balakrishnan conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Motoko Mukai conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rusty A Gonser conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

John C Wingfield conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Sarah E London conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Elaina M Tuttle conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

David F Clayton conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

All animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees of the University of California, Davis (07-13208) and the University of Illinois (11062) and were conducted in accordance with the NIH Guide for the Principles of Animal Care.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Illinois: US Fish and Wildlife Service (SCCL-41077A); California: US Fish and Wildlife Service (MB713321-0); and State of California (SC-004400)

Grant Disclosures

The following grant information was disclosed by the authors:

NIH: 1RC1GM091556;

NSF: IOS-1010429

DNA Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding the deposition of DNA sequences:

GenBank: SRX342288-SRX342293, SRX493875- SRX493882, SRX493919

Funding

Funding for this work was provided by the US National Institutes of Health, National Institute for General Medical Sciences 1RC1GM091556 (to David F. Clayton), the US National Science Foundation, Division of Integrative Organismal Systems 1010429 (to John C. Wingfield) and East Carolina University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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