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Supplemental Information

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Jeann Leal de Araujo conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ian Tizard conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jianhua Guo conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

J Jill Heatley conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Raquel R Rech conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Texas A&M University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

IACUC 2014-0006

Patent Disclosures

The following patent dependencies were disclosed by the authors:

bovine ganglioside mixture (Millipore, Billerica, MA)

QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen,Valencia,CA)

5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate/p-nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (BCIP/NBT) (Sigma-Aldrich, St.Louis, MO)

MB (3,3', 5,5;-tetramethylbenzidine) substrate (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA)

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a supplemental file.

Funding

The authors received no funding for this work.


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