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Hillman T.2019. Current methods for inhibiting antibiotic resistant bacteria by targeting bacterial cell metabolism and disrupting antibiotic elimination through the AcrAB-Tolc efflux pump. PeerJ Preprints7:e27840v1https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.27840v1
Bacteria have a complex and lengthy evolutionary history of antibiotic resistance. For millions of years, bacteria have evolved a gene pool filled with multiple drug resistant genes. However, for the past 50 years, bacteria have been mutating and evolving vigorously and rapidly. Those 50 years predate to the time of the first use of antibiotic drugs in the 1940s. Since the 1940s, with the wide-spread use of the first antibiotic, penicillin, bacteria have effectively developed resistance to multiple antibiotic drugs. Bacteria develop antibiotic resistance after acquiring antibiotic resistant genes from conjugation and a horizontal transfer of those genes. Bacteria also have innate properties, structure, and functions that can increase their resistance of antibiotics. Bacteria cells can mutate its genes and block the binding of antibiotic drugs to its DNA. If the bacteria effectively impede the activity of an antibiotic through a DNA mutation, then the same mutation is shared with other bacterial cell strains through horizontal transfer. Antibiotics can be expelled from bacteria cells by efflux pumps called AcrBC-Tolc channels from the resistance-nodulation division (RND) family. Targeting the cell metabolism or the expression of efflux pumps may deter or impede the proliferation of antibiotic resistance. Researchers cultured E. tarda with glucose and alanine, and the uptake of kanamycin increased, eliminating approximately 3,000 times the amount of MDR bacterial cells compared to the cells only treated with kanamycin. Another researcher named Dr. Li mutated a gene of the AcrAB-Tolc binding site, forming a replacement for the highly non-polar phenylalanine amino acid residue with an alanine. His mutagenesis of the efflux pumps binding sites for AcrAB-Tolc inhibited the exit of antibiotics through the AcrAB-Tolc efflux pumps. Therefore, the review serves to discuss the new, novel, and current methods for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria by targeting bacterial cell metabolism and its antibiotic resistant genes.
The preprint discusses the molecular and biochemical aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria cells. The different methods of antibiotic resistance are discussed as pumps that expel antibiotics from the bacteria cells.