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Lower rotational inertia and larger leg muscles indicate more rapid turns in tyrannosaurids than in other large theropods

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Supplemental Information

Spreadsheet for mass property calculations: Tarbosaurus bataar ZPAL MgD-I/4

This spreadsheet includes all equations necessary for calculating mass properties from lateral and coronal reconstructions. Contact author Eric Snively (esnively@uwlax.edu) for instructions.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-1

Figure for digitizing Tarbosaurus bataar (ZPAL MgD I/4), after Paul (2010) and Hurum and Sabath (2003).

This image was used for digitizing outlines and calculating mass properties of Tarbosaurus bataar (ZPAL MgD I/4). The skull is tilted down in lateral view, and shortened in dorsal view to match the length. See text for details. The tail is restores as moderately wide, after Persons and Currie (2011).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-2

Calculations of rotational inertia for body + leg

This spreadsheet has all variables and equations for calculating rotational inertia of the body and swing leg pivoting above a stance foot, for all specimens. The animal has just pushed off with its swing leg, whose center of mass is now ventrolateral to the acetabulum.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-3

R code for replicating phylogenetic comparative results

Running the R scripts in this zip folder will enable replication of results, and modifying the code will enable execution of the methods with other questions and data.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-4

PGLS results with both legs planted, with labeled data points

This figure is the same as text Fig. 4, but with full labels for all data points including taxa, and juvenile or adult status and specimen numbers for multi-specimen taxa.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-5

PGLS results for pivoting on one foot, with labeled data points

This figure is the same as text Fig. 5, but with full labels for all data points including taxa, and juvenile or adult status and specimen numbers for multi-specimen taxa.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27021v1/supp-6

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Eric Snively conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, approved the final draft.

Haley O'Brien conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables.

Donald M Henderson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Heinrich Mallison analyzed the data, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lara A Surring authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Michael E Burns authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Thomas R Holtz, Jr. authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Anthony P Russell authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lawrence M Witmer contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Philip J Currie contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Scott A Hartman prepared figures and/or tables.

John R Cotton contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data have been supplied as Supplemental Files.

Funding

This study was funded by an Alberta Ingenuity Postdoctoral Fellowship (Eric Snively) and Canada Foundation for Innovation grants (Philip J. Currie) at the University of Alberta, National Science Foundation (Lawrence Witmer), University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (Eric Snively), Oklahoma State University (Haley O'Brien), plus Russ College of Engineering, Department of Biological Sciences, and the School of Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences at Ohio University (Eric Snively). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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