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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Amrita M Menon conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Maria J R Pereira conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft, editing the manuscript.

Ludmilla M S Aguiar contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, approved the final draft, editing the manuscript.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The licence to work in Brasilia National Park, which is a protected area, was issued by ICMBIO and it is obtained through a system called SISBIO.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

1) Figshare

2)no accession/id number as it is my personal drive

3)Raw data files: the figshare link is linked to my onedrive for this data because I have 40GB of data which I'm not able to upload on figshare, please do let me know if this does not suffice.

Excel sheets:

R Script used for analysis:


This work was financially supported by the European Commission through the program Erasmus Mundus Master Course ‐ International Master in Applied Ecology”(EMMC‐IMAE) (FPA 2023‐0224 / 532524-1- FR-2012- 1-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC). We would like to express our gratitude to The Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) which granted a fellow grant to L. M. S. Aguiar (309299/2016-0) and supported our fieldwork through the “Bases para a monitoração da biodiversidade do Cerrado do Brasil Central - Rede ComCerrado” PELD project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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