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Supplemental Information

Raw data for the number of object insertions needed to solve the task

The number of object insertions (accidental and proficient) required per subject to solve the task (i.e., complete stage 3). The observer and control groups were trained following completion of Experiment 1.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2552v1/supp-1

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Rachael Miller conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper, coded videos.

Corina J Logan analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Katherine Lister reviewed drafts of the paper, coded videos.

Nicola S Clayton reviewed drafts of the paper, discussed the design and running of the experiments and was responsible for the overall maintenance of the corvid lab and research conducted therein.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The study was conducted under approval from University of Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (application number: pre.2013.109) and the European Research Council Executive Agency Ethics Team (application: 339993-CAUSCOG-ERR).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Data for the social learning GLMMs is available at the KNB Data Repository at: (Miller & Logan, 2016).


RM and NSC received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement No. 3399933, awarded to NSC. CJL was funded by the Leverhulme Trust and Isaac Newton Trust with a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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