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Supplemental Information

Results of PERMANOVA analysis

p-values were obtained using 9999 Monte Carlo samples from the asymptotic permutation distribution. Significant results are in bold.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-1

Results of fertility tests

Mean percentage (± standard deviation) of fertilized eggs and four-arm echinoplutei obtained from tests of fertility performed on US individuals from both zones during the months of maximum gonadal development.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-2

non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling for algal cover

nMDS ordination on algal cover of all replicate quadrats. White plots = take zone; black plots = no-take zone; triangles = July ’13; squares = January ’14; circles = May ’14.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-3

Sea surface temperatures

Mean values (± standard deviation) of water temperature (SST) registered from June 2013 to May 2014. Squares = take zone; circles = no-take zone.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-4

Data used for GSI analysis

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-5

Database of fertility tests conducted on undersized sea urchins (US)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-6

Dataset of algal groups

Dataset used to calculate the percentage cover of conspicuous algal taxa or morphological groups.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2502v1/supp-8

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Barbara Loi performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ivan Guala conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rodrigo Pires da Silva performed the experiments, analyzed the data.

Gianni Brundu performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Maura Baroli conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Simone Farina performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Field samplings were approved by the Regione Autonoma Sardegna (fishing license for scientific purposes n. 9727/AP SCIE/N.7 03/06/2016).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a supplementary file.

Funding

This research was funded by a Regione Autonoma Sardegna (L/7 CRP49692) grant. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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