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The coral reefs around Praia do Tofo, southern Mozambique, are known for their aggregations of marine megafauna but as yet few studies have comprehensively examined their broader biodiversity. This study is the first to assess the ichthyofaunal diversity of this economically important area. Methodology involved SCUBA and snorkel underwater visual censuses conducted between February and May, 2016, and the use of photographic records from 2015 to capture rare species. A total of 324 species, representing 79 families, were recorded from 16 reefs in the region. The area shows comparable species diversity and notably high family diversity in relation to other areas of the Western Indian Ocean. The trophic structure of the reefs, similar to that recorded in the wider region, suggests the reefs are in good health and fairly resilient to disturbance. This study highlights the area’s high biological value beyond its megafauna and lends support to greater management of these ecosystems for the benefit of the associated human population.