Visitors   Views   Downloads
NOT PEER-REVIEWED
"PeerJ Preprints" is a venue for early communication or feedback before peer review. Data may be preliminary.

Supplemental Information

Gross pathologies present in elephant limbs.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-1

Elephants: Individual variation in mean internal pressure by region.

Coloured lines show individuals, black line shows fitted LMER used for analysis. Despite pathologies being present in some elephant limbs, the models for each individual follow a similar pattern, hence excluding pathological limbs from the analysis was not deemed necessary.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-2

Elephants: Individual variation in maximum instantaneous internal pressure by region.

Coloured lines show individuals, black line shows fitted LMER used for analysis. Despite pathologies being present in some elephant limbs, the models for each individual follow a similar pattern, hence excluding pathological limbs from the analysis was not deemed necessary.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-3

Horses: Individual variation in mean internal pressure by region.

Coloured lines show individuals, black line shows fitted LMER used for analysis.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-4

Horses: Individual variation in maximum instantaneous internal pressure by region.

Coloured lines show individuals, black line shows fitted LMER used for analysis.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-5

Experimental set up.

A) Horse forelimb, B) elephant forefoot.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-6

Centre of pressure (CoP, black circles) in each horse foot, across all trials.

Arrows indicate the orientation of the hoof. Data for Horse 1 and 2 are missing due to technical difficulties with the pressure pad (see Data S9 for details). Warm colours denote higher pressures, whereas cool colours denote lower pressures, white areas show zero pressure. The purpose here was to show the CoP in relation to the hoof, rather than pressure magnitudes. Note the limited contact area of the foot, which is highly variable and likely to depend on hoof balance/trimming and concavity of the sole.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-7

Centre of pressure (CoP, black circles) in each elephant foot, across all trials.

Arrows indicate the orientation of the 3rd digit. Data for Elephant 1 are missing due to technical difficulties with the pressure pad (see Data S9 for details). Warm colours denote higher pressures, whereas cool colours denote lower pressures, white areas show zero pressure. The purpose here was to show the CoP in relation to the foot, rather than pressure magnitudes. Note the variation in contact area between individuals, which is likely to vary due to toe nail length, and the presence of fissures in the sole (dependant on abrasion/foot trimming).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-8

Technical issues with RS pressure mat.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.231v1/supp-9

Additional Information

Competing Interests

John R Hutchinson is an Academic Editor for PeerJ.

Author Contributions

Sharon E Warner conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Victoria Henry performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Kyle Roskilly contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Thomas Hildebrandt contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Olga Panagiotopoulou conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

John R Hutchinson conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Funding

This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grants BB/C516844/1 and BB/H002782/1 to J.R.H.). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Add your feedback

Before adding feedback, consider if it can be asked as a question instead, and if so then use the Question tab. Pointing out typos is fine, but authors are encouraged to accept only substantially helpful feedback.

Some Markdown syntax is allowed: _italic_ **bold** ^superscript^ ~subscript~ %%blockquote%% [link text](link URL)
 
By posting this you agree to PeerJ's commenting policies