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Supplemental Information

Appendix S1: State-space model code

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2122v1/supp-1

Appendix S2: Additional Figures

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2122v1/supp-2

Appendix S3: Full candidate model set and model selection results

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2122v1/supp-3

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Richard B Sherley conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Philna Botha analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Les G Underhill analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Peter G Ryan reviewed drafts of the paper.

Danie van Zyl performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Andrew C Cockcroft performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Robert JM Crawford performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Bruce M Dyer performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Timothée R Cook conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The work involving vertebrate animals (counts of birds) was conducted by staff of the South African Government's Department of Environmental Affairs (the relevant permitting authority) and approved by their Animal Ethics Board.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The field data were collected by the co-authors from the South African Government's Department of Environmental Affairs and Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (the relevant permitting authorities).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Plots of the bank cormorant count data and rock lobster data are including in the manuscript. Code to fit the state-space model is included in the supplementary materials. All raw data are held in repositories of the South African government and are free-available upon request.

Funding

Funding was provided by the National Research Foundation (NRF), through its SEAChange Programme (Grant Number: 79735) and an incentive grant to RJMC, the Leiden Conservation Foundation (RBS), the Claude Leon Foundation (TRC). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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