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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Eric Neilson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stan Boutin conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

University of Alberta Animal Care and Use Committee.

Approval #AUP00000040

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development Fish and Wildlife Division Permit # 54187

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

University of Alberta Archiving Service

Funding

Funding was provided by Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance and the Alberta Conservation Association. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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