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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Craig DeMars conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Greg A Breed conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jonathan Potts conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Robert Serrouya conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stan Boutin conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

University of Alberta Animal Care and Use Committee.

Approval #AUP00001309

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

British Columbia Wildlife Act Permit #FJ14-153031

Funding

Funding was provided by Nexen and the British Columbia Oil and Gas Research and Innovation Society. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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