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Social anxiety is an emotional disorder common to various populations around the world. The newly developed Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale (SBSA) aims to assess three kinds of self-beliefs through 15 items that include self-related cognitive factors that evidently result in social anxiety. This study explored the psychometric characteristics of SBSA among 978 Chinese. An eight-item Negative Self-beliefs Inventory (NSBI) was developed through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis suggested that NSBI contained clear, meaningful, stable, and invariant three-factor structure consistent with the original SBSA. Further analyses showed that the three subscales and the entire scale exhibited high internal consistency (0.779–0.837), good criterion validity, and good convergent and divergent validity (i.e., negative associations with flourishing and positive associations with anxiety, depression, and stress). These findings indicated that NSBI is reliable and valid for measuring negative self-beliefs in the Chinese population. Higher total score of NSBI indicates the more serious negative self-beliefs. Limitations of the present study and implications for research and practice were also discussed. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive ability, incremental validity, and potential role of NSBI in clinical and large-scale populations.