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Hisakawa N, Quistad S, Hester ER, Martynova D, Maughan H, Sala E, Gavrilo M, Rohwer F.2015. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic. PeerJ PrePrints3:e1341v1https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.1341v1
Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lowers albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima et al. 1993; Lutz et al. 2014; Thomas & Duval 1995) . Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.
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Supplemental Methods, Figures, and Tables
This file contains additional information about the methods used to estimate red snow abundances, and has additional figures and tables.