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Additional Information

Competing Interests

WJT is a co-founder and equity holding employee of Thync, Inc. WJT is an inventor on pending and issued patents related to methods, systems, and devices for non-invasive neuromodulation. MB holds equity in Soterix Medical, Inc. The City College of New York holds patents on tES with MB and LP as inventors.

Author Contributions

Bhaskar Paneri conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Niranjan Khadka performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Vaishali Patel performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Chris Thomas performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

William Tyler conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lucas C Parra conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Marom Bikson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The study was conducted in accordance to protocols and procedures approved by the Institutional Review Board of the City College of New York. All volunteer participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study. The CCNY IRB Approval number is 592792-10

Funding

Partial funding for this study was provided by a grant to the City College of New York from Thync, Inc., Los Gatos, California, USA. WJT is a co-founder of Thync, Inc., which partially funded this study and is a co-author on the manuscript. WJT assisted in the design of the studies and assisted in the writing of the manuscript, but had no role in collecting or analyzing the data.


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