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The resolution of rapid evolutionary radiations or “bushes” in the tree of life has been one of the most difficult and interesting problems in phylogenetics. The avian order Galliformes appears to have undergone several rapid radiations that have limited the resolution...

["Evolutionary Studies","Taxonomy","Zoology"]

Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]

Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply...


Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]

In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing...

["Ecology","Marine Biology","Zoology","Science and Medical Education"]

Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon,...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]

Garden Warblers Sylvia borin were studied during autumn stopover in Crete before crossing the barrier of the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Birds followed with transmitters show extensive stopover periods, which were longer in first-year birds, 16 days,...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]

Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are the most widespread avian brood parasite in North America, laying their eggs in the nests of approximately 250 host species that raise the cowbird nestlings as their own. It is currently unknown how these heterospecific...

["Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Microbiology","Zoology"]

Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Zoology"]

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue....

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]

New and published reports of zoogonid digeneans from New Caledonian waters are recorded, including a description of Overstreetia cribbi n. sp. from Atherinomorus lacunosus. This species differs from its congeners in the detail of its circum-oral spination and some...


Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with...


Social learning can play a critical role in the reproduction and survival of social animals. Individual differences in the propensity for social learning are therefore likely to have important fitness consequences. We asked whether personality might underpin such...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Ecology","Zoology"]

We report the first record of presumed twinning in eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) and provide a review of previously reported twinning events in wild birds. A nest containing twin eastern bluebird nestlings was monitored in 2013 in central Pennsylvania and reported...


Two big cat skulls procured from hunters of Yanachaga National Park, Peru, were reported as those of cats informally dubbed the ‘striped tiger’ and ‘anomalous jaguar’. Observations suggested that both skulls were distinct from those of jaguars, associated descriptions...


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