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How do humans see three-dimensional shape based on two-dimensional shading? Much research has assumed that a ‘light from above’ bias solves the ambiguity of shape from shading. Counter to the ‘light from above’ bias, studies of Bayesian priors have found that such...

["Neuroscience","Psychiatry and Psychology","Human\u2013Computer Interaction"]

Based on psychophysical evidence about how learning of visuomotor transformation generalizes, it has been suggested that movements are planned on the basis of movement direction and magnitude, i.e., the vector connecting movement origin and targets. This notion...


Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated...

["Animal Behavior","Neuroscience"]

Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years.Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language...

["Neuroscience","Cognitive Disorders","Epidemiology"]

Purpose. People with stroke living in the community have an increased prevalence of depression and lower quality of life than healthy older adults. This cross-sectional observational study investigated whether participation in regular exercise was associated with...

["Neuroscience","Cognitive Disorders","Neurology","Public Health"]

Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals...

["Neuroscience","Cognitive Disorders","Psychiatry and Psychology"]

Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and...

["Animal Behavior","Neuroscience"]

Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface...

["Animal Behavior","Evolutionary Studies","Neuroscience","Psychiatry and Psychology"]

To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV), have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes...

["Molecular Biology","Neuroscience","Neurology","Pharmacology"]

Background. This study’s goal was to provide dose–response data for a dopamine agonist in the baboon using standard methods (replicate measurements at each dose, across a range of doses), as a standard against which to subsequently validate a novel pharmacological...

["Neuroscience","Diabetes and Endocrinology","Pharmacology","Radiology and Medical Imaging"]

Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect...

["Animal Behavior","Neuroscience"]

NA-glycine is an endogenous lipid molecule with analgesic properties, which is structurally similar to the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide but does not interact with cannabinoid receptors. NA-glycine has been suggested to act at the G-protein coupled receptors...


Scientific reproducibility has been at the forefront of many news stories and there exist numerous initiatives to help address this problem. We posit that a contributor is simply a lack of specificity that is required to enable adequate research reproducibility....

["Cell Biology","Developmental Biology","Neuroscience","Immunology","Science Policy"]

Perceived brightness of a stimulus depends on the background against which the stimulus is set, a phenomenon known as simultaneous contrast. For instance, the same gray stimulus can look light against a black background or dark against a white background. Here...


Background. Normally one habituates rapidly to steady, faint sensations. People with sensory hypersensitivity (SH), by contrast, continue to attend to such stimuli and find them noxious. SH is common in Tourette syndrome (TS) and autism, and methods to quantify...

["Neuroscience","Neurology","Psychiatry and Psychology"]

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