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evolutionary studies

The resolution of rapid evolutionary radiations or “bushes” in the tree of life has been one of the most difficult and interesting problems in phylogenetics. The avian order Galliformes appears to have undergone several rapid radiations that have limited the resolution...

["Evolutionary Studies","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.361

Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.357

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics","Microbiology","Infectious Diseases"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.340

Therocephalians were a speciose clade of nonmammalian therapsids whose ecological diversity and survivorship of the end-Permian mass extinction offer the potential to investigate the evolution of growth patterns across the clade and their underlying influences...

["Evolutionary Studies","Histology","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.325

Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon,...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.329

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.318

Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees...

["Ecology","Entomology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.314

Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are the most widespread avian brood parasite in North America, laying their eggs in the nests of approximately 250 host species that raise the cowbird nestlings as their own. It is currently unknown how these heterospecific...

["Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Microbiology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.321

Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.310

The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue....

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.301

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has received a great deal of attention in ecological research and recent results, from re-analyses, suggest that ecosystem function improves with increases in phylogenetic diversity. However, many of...

["Biodiversity","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Plant Science"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.288

Microbes require several complex organic molecules for growth. A species may obtain a required factor by taking up molecules released by other species or by synthesizing the molecule. The patterns of uptake and synthesis set a flow of resources through the multiple...

["Evolutionary Studies","Mathematical Biology","Microbiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.267

Ankyrin (ANK) repeats are one of the most common amino acid sequence motifs that mediate interactions between proteins of myriad sizes, shapes and functions. We assess their widespread abundance in Bacteria and Archaea for the first time and demonstrate in Bacteria...

["Evolutionary Studies","Microbiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.264

Plesiochelyidae are a major component of Late Jurassic shallow marine environments throughout Europe. However, the taxonomy of plesiochelyid turtles is rather confused. Over the years, many taxa have been synonymized with Plesiochelys etalloni, one of the first...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.258

Signa are sclerotized structures located on the inner wall of the corpus bursa of female Lepidoptera whose main function is tearing open spermatophores. The sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) hypothesis proposes that the thickness of spermatophore envelopes...

["Animal Behavior","Entomology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.247

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