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Aim. To determine the characteristics of megajournal authors, the nature of the manuscripts they are submitting to these journals, factors influencing their decision to publish in a megajournal, sources of funding for article processing charges (APCs) or other...

["Science Policy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.365

Comparing risks among pesticides has substantial utility for decision makers. However, if rating schemes to compare risks are to be used, they must be conceptually and mathematically sound. We address limitations with pesticide risk rating schemes by examining...

["Agricultural Science","Entomology","Environmental Sciences","Toxicology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.364

How do humans see three-dimensional shape based on two-dimensional shading? Much research has assumed that a ‘light from above’ bias solves the ambiguity of shape from shading. Counter to the ‘light from above’ bias, studies of Bayesian priors have found that such...

["Neuroscience","Psychiatry and Psychology","Human\u2013Computer Interaction"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.363

The resolution of rapid evolutionary radiations or “bushes” in the tree of life has been one of the most difficult and interesting problems in phylogenetics. The avian order Galliformes appears to have undergone several rapid radiations that have limited the resolution...

["Evolutionary Studies","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.361

Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like...

["Genetics","Epidemiology","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.359

Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection...

["Genetics","Medical Genetics","Ethical Issues"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.354

Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.357

Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established...

["Bioengineering","Veterinary Medicine","Orthopedics","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.353

Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory...

["Entomology","Parasitology","Epidemiology","Pediatrics","Public Health"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.351

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics","Microbiology","Infectious Diseases"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.340

The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Nutrition"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.350

Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Ecosystem Science","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.348

Based on psychophysical evidence about how learning of visuomotor transformation generalizes, it has been suggested that movements are planned on the basis of movement direction and magnitude, i.e., the vector connecting movement origin and targets. This notion...

["Neuroscience"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.342

Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated...

["Animal Behavior","Neuroscience"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.352

It has been reported that the expression of TMEM65 is regulated by steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA). To date, however, the localization and function of TMEM65 remained unknown. We analyzed the intracellular localization of TMEM65. Immunoblot and immunostaining...

["Biochemistry","Cell Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.349

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