Preprints (not yet peer-reviewed)

17 downloads
114 views

The Callovian Oxford Clay of England has yielded a rich and diverse marine fauna, mainly discovered and described by Alfred Leeds. However, occasionally it also brought forth terrestrial fossils, including four isolated cases of sauropod remains, one of a stegosaurid,...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3243v1
32 downloads
113 views

The availability of free-standing water sources is a key determinant of animal and plant community structure in arid environments, and an understanding of the extent to which particular species depend on drinking water is vital for modelling the effects of climate...

["Ecology","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology","Biosphere Interactions"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3167v1
39 downloads
137 views

The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) in a simulated physiological environment of articular cartilage is thoroughly examined in silico using full atomistic models. The effects of chemical and physical properties were investigated...

["Biochemistry","Biophysics","Computational Biology","Anatomy and Physiology","Rheumatology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3063v1
34 downloads
270 views

A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g. woodpeckers and nectarivores). Hummingbirds are the...

["Biophysics","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2986v1
237 downloads
1,017 views

Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations...

["Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Neuroscience","Paleontology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2313v2
207 downloads
769 views

The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of the patella is...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2594v2
30 downloads
129 views

Structure informs function, and this may be the evolutionary reason why alternative splicing, which is capable of generating different variants of the same protein, arise. But, given the energetic cost of generating different splice variants for testing their capability...

["Biochemistry","Bioinformatics","Genomics","Molecular Biology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2717v1
265 downloads
401 views

Whilst most anthropometrical research within sport has focussed on muscle and fat distribution, more studies are measuring the relationship between stature and wingspan, which has been found to be selective criteria in many sports. In this study the stature, wingspan...

["Anthropology","Anatomy and Physiology","Statistics"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1892v2
43 downloads
219 views

We comment on the recent developments and problems of three-dimensional printing in cardiology. Since there are currently no standards or consensuses for 3D printing in clinical medicine and the technology is at its infancy in cardiology, it’s very important to...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Cardiology","Clinical Trials","Radiology and Medical Imaging"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2597v1
50 downloads
184 views

Walking velocity is an important control variable in gait disorders due to sensory or cerebellar disfunction. Non-preferred walking speeds are closely linked to a higher risk of falls. A compensation strategy of patients to avoid these speed sectors can be assumed....

["Bioinformatics","Anatomy and Physiology","Neurology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2545v1
22 downloads
168 views

Here we present a single working model that attempts at reconciliation of biological systems. To do this we recognize and emphasize a universal theme of all biological systems: a need for resources. That is, we consider the dynamics of resource allocation as a...

["Biochemistry","Cell Biology","Mathematical Biology","Anatomy and Physiology","Metabolic Sciences"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2503v1
55 downloads
205 views

Backgroud: Protruding ear is the most commonly found auricular populational deformity with significant social consequences. The problem is clearly perceptible in frontal facial images, but a simple photographic classification for prominence has not yet been defined....

["Anatomy and Physiology","Pediatrics","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2426v1
102 downloads
386 views

The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to...

["Animal Behavior","Bioengineering","Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2324v1
59 downloads
217 views

It is shown that the mass, metabolism and length explanation (MMLE) can simultaneously compute an animal’s body mass and BMR given its characteristic length using data for humans. MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and...

["Mathematical Biology","Anatomy and Physiology","Metabolic Sciences"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2182v1
102 downloads
302 views

Background – actibelt technology – a 3D accelerometer in a belt buckle and a package of algorithms, mainly used in international multi centre clinical trials – has also been evaluated for various applications in space, moon and mars in a series of studies and projects...

["Bioinformatics","Anatomy and Physiology","Computational Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2143v1
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