Peer-reviewed Articles

Previous investigations document functional and phylogenetic signals in the histology of dinosaur teeth. In particular, incremental lines in dentin have been used to determine tooth growth and replacement rates in several dinosaurian clades. However, to date, few...

["Paleontology","Anatomy and Physiology","Dentistry","Histology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4129
83 downloads
374 views

This study evaluated the acute effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on a high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and physiological indicators in amateur soccer players. Thirteen players (21.5 ± 2 yrs) attended three trials separated by 3–5 days in...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4118
416 downloads
466 views

‘Repetitions in Reserve’ (RIR) scales in resistance training (RT) are used to control effort but assume people accurately predict performance a priori (i.e. the number of possible repetitions to momentary failure (MF)). This study examined the ability of trainees...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4105
113 downloads
610 views

Purpose The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ( $\dot {\mathrm{V }}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$ V ̇ O 2 ) and the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3694
226 downloads
1,383 views

Two new species of therocephalian therapsids are described from the upper Permian Teekloof Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. They include two specimens of a whaitsiid, Microwhaitsia mendrezi gen. et sp. nov., and a single, small whaitsioid Ophidostoma...

["Biodiversity","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Taxonomy","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3868
66 downloads
282 views

The vascular anatomy of submental flaps (SFs) represents a determining factor in successful SF raising. However, little attention has been focused on the venous return of SFs. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate SF venous return. This study enrolled patients...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Otorhinolaryngology","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3606
237 downloads
700 views

Background Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology","Radiology and Medical Imaging"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3592
65 downloads
358 views

Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth—the so-called developmental instability—can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry). This study investigates...

["Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology","Pathology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3359
203 downloads
1,153 views

A complete understanding of the feeding structures is fundamental in order to study how animals survive. Some birds use long and protrusible tongues as the main tool to collect their central caloric source (e.g., woodpeckers and nectarivores). Hummingbirds are...

["Biophysics","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3449
1 citation
170 downloads
797 views

Background Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism represent one of the most complex complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serotonin, a monoamine synthesized from tryptophan, may play a potential role in bone metabolism. Brain-derived serotonin exerts...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Nephrology","Neurology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3199
2 citations
498 downloads
1,964 views

Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations...

["Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Neuroscience","Paleontology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3119
175 downloads
1,297 views

Background Kettlebell lifting has gained increased popularity as both a form of resistance training and as a sport, despite the paucity of literature validating its use as a training tool. Kettlebell sport requires participants to complete the kettlebell snatch...

["Bioengineering","Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology","Orthopedics"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3111
6 citations
457 downloads
2,175 views

The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella...

["Evolutionary Studies","Palaeontology","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3103
198 downloads
920 views

Background The Non-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (NRLN) is a rare embryologically-derived variant of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN). The presence of an NRLN significantly increases the risk of iatrogenic injury and operative complications. Our aim was to provide...

["Anatomy and Physiology","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3012
1 citation
117 downloads
754 views

In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented...

["Evolutionary Studies","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3008

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