Peer-reviewed Articles - Biology

42 downloads
195 views

Recent research has shown that a brief, casual touch administered by an outgroup member reduces prejudice towards the group to which the toucher belongs. In this study, we take the research on physical contact and prejudice a step further by addressing the relation...

["Anthropology","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5680
124 downloads
1,332 views

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Walking behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different environmental and task...

["Anthropology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5547
35 downloads
407 views

Background Bone strength is developed through a combination of the size and shape (architecture) of a bone as well as the bone’s material properties; and therefore, no one outcome variable can measure a positive or negative adaptation in bone. Skeletal robusticity...

["Anthropology","Kinesiology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5550
65 downloads
374 views

Background Musculoskeletal and finite element modelling are often used to predict joint loading and bone strength within the human hand, but there is a lack of in vitro evidence of the force and strain experienced by hand bones. Methods This study presents a novel...

["Anthropology","Bioengineering"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5480
63 downloads
716 views

Background The Windover mortuary pond dates to the Early Archaic period (6,800–5,200 years ago) and constitutes one of the earliest archaeological sites with intact and well-preserved human remains in North America. Unlike many prehistoric egalitarian hunter-gatherers,...

["Anthropology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5564
1 citation
517 downloads
11,345 views

The causes of technological innovation in the Palaeolithic archaeological record are central to understanding Plio-Pleistocene hominin behaviour and temporal trends in artefact variation. Palaeolithic archaeologists frequently investigate the Oldowan-Acheulean...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5399
135 downloads
1,363 views

The Gondolin palaeokarstic system, located in the UNESCO Fossil Hominids of South Africa World Heritage Site, has been sporadically excavated since the 1970s. Sampling of ex situ dumpsites in 1997 recovered the only two fossil hominin specimens recovered thus far...

["Anthropology","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5393
92 downloads
1,720 views

Background Peaceful conflict resolution strategies have been identified as effective mechanisms for minimising the potential costs of group life in many gregarious species, especially in primates. The knowledge of conflict-management in orangutans, though, is still...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5303
131 downloads
1,737 views

Autonomic nervous systems in the human body are named for their operation outside of conscious control. One rare exception is voluntarily generated piloerection (VGP)—the conscious ability to induce goosebumps—whose physiological study, to our knowledge, is confined...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Anatomy and Physiology","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5292
184 downloads
978 views

Background In addition to external bone shape and cortical bone thickness and distribution, the distribution and orientation of internal trabecular bone across individuals and species has yielded important functional information on how bone adapts in response to...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5156
200 downloads
1,388 views

Loud calls are used by many species as long-distance signals for group defense, mate attraction, and inter- and intragroup spacing. Chimpanzee loud calls, or pant hoots, are used in a variety of contexts including group coordination and during male contests. Here,...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.5079
97 downloads
761 views

Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) are one of the most widely distributed non-human primate species found in South Africa. They occur across all the South African provinces, inhabiting a large variety of habitats. These habitats vary sufficiently that it...

["Anthropology","Biodiversity","Biogeography","Genetics"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4953
131 downloads
735 views

Background West African landscapes are largely characterised by complex agroforest mosaics. Although the West African forests are considered a nonhuman primate hotspot, knowledge on the distribution of many species is often lacking and out-of-date. Considering...

["Anthropology","Conservation Biology","Natural Resource Management"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4847
1 citation
254 downloads
1,627 views

Paleontological research increasingly uses high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) to study the inner architecture of modern and fossil bone material to answer important questions regarding vertebrate evolution. This non-destructive method allows for the...

["Anthropology","Bioinformatics"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4374
1 citation
177 downloads
1,543 views

Behavioural flexibility, the ability to alter behaviour in response to environmental feedback, and to relinquish previously successful solutions to problems, is a crucial ability in allowing organisms to adapt to novel environments and environmental change; it...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4366

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