Background. The Balkans are a major biodiversity and endemism hotspot, worldwide. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history....

["Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Science","Biogeography","Evolutionary Studies","Molecular Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2741v1
109 downloads
404 views

1) Environmental bulk samples often contain many taxa with biomass differences of several orders of magnitude. This can be problematic in DNA metabarcoding and metagenomic high throughput sequencing approaches, as large specimens contribute disproportionate amounts...

["Biodiversity","Conservation Biology","Environmental Sciences","Molecular Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2561v2
18 downloads
123 views

Background The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, tolerates freezing as a means of winter survival. Freezing is considered to be an ischemic/anoxic event in which oxygen delivery is significantly impaired. In addition, cellular dehydration occurs during freezing because...

["Biochemistry","Cell Biology","Genetics","Molecular Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2797
67 downloads
277 views

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was the first species to be classified as threatened with extinction based on predictions of future conditions rather than current status. These predictions were made using expert-opinion forecasts of population declines linked...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Environmental Sciences","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2737v1
286 downloads
6,480 views

Azhdarchid pterosaurs include the largest animals to ever take to the skies with some species exceeding 10 metres in wingspan and 220 kg in mass. Associated skeletons show that azhdarchids were long-necked, long-jawed predators that combined a wing planform suited...

["Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2908
51 downloads
197 views

We present the first study that evaluates jaguar-puma interactions in the arid lands of northern Mexico, where jaguars have their northernmost breeding population and both predators are persecuted for livestock depredation. We tested whether jaguars are the dominant...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2886
46 downloads
276 views

Background The shells of molluscs survive well in many sedimentary contexts and yield information about the diet of prehistoric humans. They also yield evidence of symbolic behaviours through their use as beads for body adornments. Researchers often analyse the...

["Ecology","Marine Biology","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2903
16 downloads
112 views

Antipredatory defenses are maintained when benefit exceeds cost. A weak predation pressure may lead insular lizards to tameness. Podarcis lilfordi exhibits a high degree of insular tameness, which may explain its extinction from the main island of Menorca when...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2828
48 downloads
334 views

1. Interspecific relationships, termed symbiosis, are considered very diverse, while intraspecific relationships have just two categories. 2. The present classification fails to define all interactions among members of the same species, as demonstrated by observations...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2563v3
16 downloads
97 views

Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. The field of cognitive ecology explores how the environment...

["Animal Behavior","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2728v1
12 downloads
43 views

Background. Theory predicts strong bottom-up control in detritus-based food webs, yet field experiments with detritus-based terrestrial systems have uncovered contradictory evidence regarding the strength and pervasiveness of bottom-up control processes. Two factors...

["Ecology","Soil Science","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2722v1
77 downloads
326 views

Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental...

["Biodiversity","Biogeography","Conservation Biology","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2849
17 downloads
171 views

Flies use specialized photoreceptors R7 and R8 in the dorsal rim area (DRA) to detect skylight polarization. R7 and R8 form a tiered waveguide (central rhabdomere pair, CRP) with R7 on top, filtering light delivered to R8. We examine how the division of a given...

["Animal Behavior","Biophysics","Mathematical Biology","Neuroscience","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2772
266 downloads
1,061 views

Non-mammaliaform cynodonts gave rise to mammals but the reproductive biology of this extinct group is still poorly known. Two exceptional fossils of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus, consisting of juveniles closely associated with an adult, were briefly...

["Animal Behavior","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2875
44 downloads
257 views

A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape...

["Biodiversity","Marine Biology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2863

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