The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses different courses of actions even under identical external circumstances. Due...

["Animal Behavior","Genetics","Neuroscience","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2491v1

Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common. These can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species, traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2488v1

The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other...

["Biogeography","Ecology","Marine Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2486v1
34 downloads
140 views

Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition...

["Biodiversity","Conservation Biology","Ecology","Entomology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2538
8 downloads
85 views

Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance...

["Animal Behavior","Conservation Biology","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2525
53 downloads
304 views

Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities....

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Marine Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2517
44 downloads
189 views

In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to...

["Biodiversity","Biogeography","Entomology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2514
40 downloads
262 views

As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt), chewing (Ct) and handling times (Ht) differed across food types and harvesting...

["Animal Behavior","Conservation Biology","Veterinary Medicine","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2469
99 downloads
1,003 views

The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares) is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt). Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2453
8 downloads
76 views

Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae...

["Developmental Biology","Marine Biology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2462v1
151 downloads
783 views

The Ziphiidae (beaked whales) represent a large group of open-ocean odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), whose elusive and deep diving behavior prevents direct observation in their natural habitat. Despite their generally large body size, broad geographical distribution,...

["Evolutionary Studies","Marine Biology","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2479
23 downloads
153 views

Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon...

["Cell Biology","Parasitology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2488
50 downloads
191 views

African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) are often referred to as ‘purely aquatic’ but there are many publications which suggest extensive overland movements. Previous reviews which considered the topic have not answered the following questions: (1) is there evidence...

["Animal Behavior","Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Science","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2474
30 downloads
127 views

Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat,...

["Conservation Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2465
66 downloads
274 views

Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with...

["Ecology","Microbiology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2430

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