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Total of 80 results See all subject areas
psychiatry and psychology

How do humans see three-dimensional shape based on two-dimensional shading? Much research has assumed that a ‘light from above’ bias solves the ambiguity of shape from shading. Counter to the ‘light from above’ bias, studies of Bayesian priors have found that such...

["Neuroscience","Psychiatry and Psychology","Human\u2013Computer Interaction"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.363

Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like...

["Genetics","Epidemiology","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.359

Background: Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted here is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. This study aimed to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use....

["Drugs and Devices","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.254v2

Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Psychiatry and Psychology","Public Health"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.345

The Data Rate Theorem that establishes a formal linkage between real-time linear control theory and information theory carries deep implications for the study of embodied cognition and its dysfunctions across human, machine, and composite man-machine cockpit entities....

["Computational Biology","Psychiatry and Psychology","Human-Computer Interaction"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.356v1

Background. Interpretation is the process through which humans attribute meanings to the inputs they receive from their natural or social environment. Formulation and exchange of meanings (through natural language) are fundamental aspects of human behaviour and...

["Neuroscience","Psychiatry and Psychology","Science and Medical Education"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.358v1

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels...

["Psychiatry and Psychology","Human\u2013Computer Interaction"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.337

Many species employ conditional strategies for reproduction or survival. In other words, each individual “chooses” one of two or more possible phenotypes to maximize survival or reproductive advantage given specific ecological niche conditions (e.g., Moran, 1992)....

["Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.347v1

Background. Parental absences in childhood are often associated with accelerated reproductive maturity in humans. These results are counterintuitive for evolutionary social scientists because reductions in parental investment should be detrimental for offspring,...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.345v1

Aetiologies of developmental dyslexia often assume a deficit in auditory processing may be causally entailed in the specific learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of assumed auditory features that are supposed to evidence the account...

["Biophysics","Developmental Biology","Neuroscience","Cognitive Disorders","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.341v1

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are claimed to show a local cognitive bias, termed “weak central coherence”, which manifests in a reduced influence of contextual information on linguistic processing. Here, we investigated whether this bias might also...

["Cognitive Disorders","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.338v1

Identification of possible cases suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important, especially in developing countries where traumatic events are typically prevalent. The Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale is a reliable and valid measure that...

["Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.337v1

Background. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the attentional blink (AB) research focussed on specific reading impairment, commonly referred to as developmental dyslexia. The AB effect relates to a limitation in the allocation of attention over time and examined...

["Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.310v2

Large-scale human groups cannot rely on shared genetic interests or dyadic reciprocity to ensure social cohesion as genetic similarity is low and indirect reciprocity is rife; nevertheless, such societies continue to cohere, due to the evolution of novel regulatory...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology","Ethical Issues"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.321v1

Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not...

["Psychiatry and Psychology","Public Health"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.318v1

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