Reconstructing the timescale of the Tree of Life is one of the principal aims of evolutionary biology. This has been greatly aided by the development of the molecular clock, which enables evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data. In recent years,...

["Biogeography","Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Genomics","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2403v1
171 downloads
1,502 views

Pterosaurs are an extinct group of highly modified flying reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic. This group has unique and remarkable skeletal adaptations to powered flight, including pneumatic bones and an elongate digit IV supporting a wing-membrane. Two...

["Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2311
63 downloads
492 views

Aetosaurians are some of the most common fossils collected from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona, especially at the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO). Aetosaurians collected from lower levels of the park include Desmatosuchus spurensis, Paratypothorax,...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2411
161 downloads
622 views

Background. The primarily Neotropical distribution of living alligatoroids raises questions as to when and how the ancestors of Alligator sinensis migrated to China. As phylogeny provides a necessary framework for historical biogeographic issues, determining the...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2356
161 downloads
1,043 views

Footprint morphology (e.g., outline shape, depth of impression) is one of the key diagnostic features used in the interpretation of ancient vertebrate tracks. Over 80 tridactyl tracks, confined to the same bedding surface in the Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation...

["Environmental Sciences","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2285
295 downloads
202 views

Most reconstruction methods for genomes of ancient origin that are used today require a closely related reference. In order to identify genomic rearrangements or the deletion of whole genes, de novo assembly has to be used. However, because of inherent problems...

["Bioinformatics","Paleontology","Computational Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2383v1
15 downloads
74 views

Background. Now-a-day territory of Western Siberia has the poorest diversity of amphibians and reptiles within the Palaearctic Realm, influenced by unfavourable climate. Less is known about the origin and emergence of it. Aside from better-explored European Neogene...

["Biodiversity","Biogeography","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2365v1
316 downloads
2,962 views

The diversification of crown cetacean lineages (i.e., crown Odontoceti and crown Mysticeti) occurred throughout the Oligocene, but it remains an ongoing challenge to resolve the phylogenetic pattern of their origins, especially with respect to stem lineages. One...

["Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Marine Biology","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2321
282 downloads
3,247 views

The “scaly-tailed squirrels” of the rodent family Anomaluridae have a long evolutionary history in Africa, and are now represented by two gliding genera (Anomalurus and Idiurus) and a rare and obscure genus (Zenkerella) that has never been observed alive by mammalogists....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2320
239 downloads
885 views

The fossil record of dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of eastern North America is scant, especially since few formations from the east are fossiliferous. Among those that are is the Arundel Formation of the eastern seaboard, which has produced among the best...

["Biogeography","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2308v2
72 downloads
146 views

Synchrotron-based techniques offer a wealth of elemental, molecular, and structural insights in biological samples, but the application of these techniques to fossils is a relatively new development. Here we examine how Synchrotron Radiation Micro X-Ray Fluorescence...

["Entomology","Paleontology","Science and Medical Education"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2337v1
85 downloads
480 views

Background. The estimation of body mass of long extinct species of the family Felidae has been a focus of paleontology. However, most utilized methods impose expected proportions on the fossil specimens being estimated, resulting in a high chance of underestimation...

["Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2327v2
373 downloads
2,932 views

The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2312
254 downloads
627 views

Since the 1900s, dinosaur fossils have been discovered from Jurassic to Cretaceous age strata, from all across the prairie provinces of Canada and the Western United States, yet little material is known from the outer provinces and territories. In British Columbia,...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1369v3
55 downloads
270 views

Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations...

["Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Neuroscience","Paleontology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2313v1

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