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paleontology

The coexistence of multiple hominin species during the Lower Pleistocene has long presented a challenge for taxonomic attribution of isolated postcrania. Although fossil humeri are well-suited for studies of hominin postcranial variation due to their relative abundance,...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1084
23 downloads
291 views

Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important and prolific carbonate producers both in modern and ancient shallow tropical seas. During the Paleogene the genus Nummulites was particularly abundant with a global distribution, leading it to be frequently used in...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1072
22 downloads
128 views

Some higher plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms, can produce resins and some of these resins can polymerize and fossilize to form ambers. Various physical and chemical techniques have been used to identify and profile different plant resins and have then been...

["Paleontology","Plant Science"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1067
55 downloads
264 views

The extinct Stereogenyina turtles form a relatively diverse Podocnemididae lineage, with twelve described and phylogenetically positioned species. They are characterized by a wide geographic and temporal range, from the Eocene of Africa to the Pleistocene of Southeast...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1063
95 downloads
419 views

Triassic vertebrate tracks are known from the beginning of the 19th century and have a worldwide distribution. Several Triassic track ichnoassemblages and ichnotaxa have a restricted stratigraphic range and are useful in biochronology and biostratigraphy. The record...

["Biogeography","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1044
50 downloads
273 views

The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862), but has long been represented only by...

["Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1036
139 downloads
220 views

Non-avian saurischian skulls underwent at least 165 million years of evolution and shapes varied from elongated skulls, such as in Coelophysis, to short and box-shaped skulls, such as in Camarasaurus. A number of factors have long been considered to drive skull...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1185v1
9 downloads
68 views

Background. Beyond the International Codes of Zoological (ICZN) and Botanical Nomenclature and the PhyloCode, there is an alternative taxonomic system for phylogenetic systematics proposed. This phylogenetic nomenclature suggests the elimination of suprageneric...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1181v1
441 downloads
2,544 views

The exceptionally well-preserved Romanian dinosaur Balaur bondoc is the most complete theropod known to date from the Upper Cretaceous of Europe. Previous studies of this remarkable taxon have included its phylogenetic interpretation as an aberrant dromaeosaurid...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1032
218 downloads
1,152 views

Pterodactyloid pterosaurs are widely interpreted as terrestrially competent, erect-limbed quadrupeds, but the terrestrial capabilities of non-pterodactyloids are largely thought to have been poor. This is commonly justified by the absence of a non-pterodactyloid...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1018
122 downloads
212 views

Feathers are the most complex and diversified integuments in vertebrates. Their complexity are provided by the different forms and functions, and they occur both in non-avian and avian-dinosaurs. Despite their rareness, feathers are found throughout the world,...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1170v1
32 downloads
322 views

Unworn teeth of herbivorous mammals are not immediately functional. They have to be partially worn to expose enamel ridges which can then act as shear-cutting blades to break the food down. We use the Plains Zebra (Equus quagga) as a hypsodont, herbivorous model...

["Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.1002
106 downloads
463 views

A new parvicursorine alvarezsauroid theropod specimen IVPP V20341 from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, China is described. IVPP V20341 appears to be distinguishable amongst alvarezsauroids by possible cervical procoely...

["Biodiversity","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.986
97 downloads
300 views

The interest in mammalian palaeohistology has increased dramatically in the last two decades. Starting in 1849 via descriptive approaches, it has been demonstrated that bone tissue and vascularisation types correlate with several biological variables such as ontogenetic...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Histology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1155v1
27 downloads
79 views

In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms) and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs). These studies sought to quantify...

["Bioengineering","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1151v1

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