31 downloads
284 views

Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar...

["Ecology","Paleontology","Plant Science"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2985
137 downloads
531 views

The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of the patella is...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2594v2
87 downloads
729 views

Larvae of malacostracan crustaceans represent a large fraction of modern day zooplankton. Plankton is not only a major part of the modern marine ecosystem, but must have played an important role in the ecosystems of the past as well. Unfortunately, our knowledge...

["Developmental Biology","Ecology","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2966
68 downloads
865 views

Vertebrate trace fossils are common in Upper Triassic deposits across the American southwest. These ichnofauna are dominated by Grallator, Brachychirotherium, and Pseudotetrasauropus, and lack ichnotaxa traditionally considered to be Early Jurassic in age, such...

["Biogeography","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2662v2
286 downloads
5,643 views

Based on specimens previously identified as Tropidostoma, a new taxon of dicynodont (Bulbasaurus phylloxyron gen. et sp. nov.) from the Karoo Basin of South Africa is described. Bulbasaurus is a medium-sized dicynodont (maximum dorsal skull length 16.0 cm) restricted...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2913
188 downloads
1,055 views

A novel reconstruction of the nodosaurid dinosaur Struthiosaurus austriacus Bunzel 1871 is presented. Because bones and dermal armor are preserved as disarticulated elements only and because of the lack of field notes from the original excavation(s), any attempt...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2758v1
174 downloads
1,721 views

Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs”) are known from numerous specimens in western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting the inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern...

["Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2746v1
239 downloads
959 views

Background Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 from the Late Jurassic Morrison Fm. of Wyoming was originally described as a dinosaur by Marsh and in 1971 Ostrom suggested crocodilian affinities. In 2005, Göhlich and collaborators identified new material of this species...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2801
982 downloads
17,387 views

Azhdarchid pterosaurs include the largest animals to ever take to the skies with some species exceeding 10 metres in wingspan and 220 kg in mass. Associated skeletons show that azhdarchids were long-necked, long-jawed predators that combined a wing planform suited...

["Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2908
82 downloads
434 views

Background The shells of molluscs survive well in many sedimentary contexts and yield information about the diet of prehistoric humans. They also yield evidence of symbolic behaviours through their use as beads for body adornments. Researchers often analyse the...

["Ecology","Marine Biology","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2903
319 downloads
1,296 views

Non-mammaliaform cynodonts gave rise to mammals but the reproductive biology of this extinct group is still poorly known. Two exceptional fossils of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus, consisting of juveniles closely associated with an adult, were briefly...

["Animal Behavior","Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2875
100 downloads
668 views

While large mass mortality events (MMEs) are well known for toothed whales, they have been rare in baleen whales due to their less gregarious behaviour. Although in most cases the cause of mortality has not been conclusively identified, some baleen whale mortality...

["Conservation Biology","Ecosystem Science","Marine Biology","Paleontology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2707v1
36 downloads
122 views

The morphology and affinities of newly discovered soft-bodied fossils from the early Cambrian (Series 2: Stage 4, Dyeran) Carrara Formation that resemble modern and fossil porpitids are discussed. These specimens show substantial similarity to the Ordovician porpitid...

["Paleontology","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2706v1
106 downloads
496 views

The evolution of herbivory in early tetrapods was crucial in the establishment of terrestrial ecosystems, although it is so far unclear what effect this innovation had on the macro-evolutionary patterns observed within this clade. The clades which entered this...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2701v1
390 downloads
1,360 views

The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Taxonomy"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.2813

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