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Total of 554 results See all subject areas
evolutionary studies

Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.357

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics","Microbiology","Infectious Diseases"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.340

Expression of phenotypic plasticity depends on reaction norms adapted to historic selective regimes; anthropogenic changes in these selection regimes necessitate contemporary evolution or extirpation. Adaptation of conditional strategies following a change in the...

["Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Science","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.361v1

Therocephalians were a speciose clade of nonmammalian therapsids whose ecological diversity and survivorship of the end-Permian mass extinction offer the potential to investigate the evolution of growth patterns across the clade and their underlying influences...

["Evolutionary Studies","Histology","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.325

Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon,...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.329

Many species employ conditional strategies for reproduction or survival. In other words, each individual “chooses” one of two or more possible phenotypes to maximize survival or reproductive advantage given specific ecological niche conditions (e.g., Moran, 1992)....

["Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.347v1

It has been widely accepted that aphids and their primary endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera have strictly parallel diversification relationship. As the first reported case of insect-bacteria cospeciation, this parallel diversification hypothesis has been prevalent,...

["Entomology","Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Microbiology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.346v1

Background. Parental absences in childhood are often associated with accelerated reproductive maturity in humans. These results are counterintuitive for evolutionary social scientists because reductions in parental investment should be detrimental for offspring,...

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.345v1

In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical...

["Agricultural Science","Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.343v1

Genetic selection for improved meat yields, digestive efficiency and growth rates have transformed the biology of broiler chickens. Modern birds undergo a 50-fold multiplication in body mass in just six weeks, from hatching to slaughter weight. However, this selection...

["Agricultural Science","Developmental Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology","Anatomy and Physiology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.342v1

Contagious parthenogenesis – a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage, which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring – is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation...

["Biodiversity","Evolutionary Studies","Genetics","Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.333v1

Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and the direction of sexual trait evolution. Male signalling intensity is often an important predictor of mating success because higher intensity (louder) signallers are detectable at...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Entomology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.324v1

Gereau et al. (2013) criticized our recent analysis on the phylogenetic patterns of extinction risk in the Eastern Arc biodiversity hotspot (Yessoufou et al. 2012). However, Gereau and colleagues based their critique on preconceptions and speculation rather than...

["Biodiversity","Conservation Biology","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.323v1

Large-scale human groups cannot rely on shared genetic interests or dyadic reciprocity to ensure social cohesion as genetic similarity is low and indirect reciprocity is rife; nevertheless, such societies continue to cohere, due to the evolution of novel regulatory...

["Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Psychiatry and Psychology","Ethical Issues"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.321v1

The Eurasian or spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) is a widespread resident corvid found throughout the Palearctic from Central Europe to Japan. Characterized by periodic bouts of irruptive dispersal in search of Pinus seed crops, this species has potential...

["Biogeography","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.319v1

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