Brachycephalus are among the smallest terrestrial vertebrates in the world. The genus encompasses 34 species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, occurring mostly in montane forests, with many species showing microendemic distributions to single mountaintops....

["Zoology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3461v1

Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex, multisystem genetic disorder characterized by a variety of physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. PWS is a unique sarcopenia model characterized by an abnormal increase in body fat mass and a decrease...

["Diabetes and Endocrinology","Pediatrics","Medical Genetics","Metabolic Sciences"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4097

Species distribution models (SDMs) have become important and essential tools in conservation and management. However, SDMs built with count data, referred to as species abundance models (SAMs), are still less commonly used to date, but increasingly receiving attention....

["Biodiversity","Biogeography","Conservation Biology","Ecology","Data Mining and Machine Learning"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4160

Background Pesticidal RNAs that silence critical gene function have great potential in pest management, but the benefits of this technology must be weighed against non-target organism risks. Methods Published studies that developed pesticidal double stranded RNAs...

["Biotechnology","Ecology","Entomology","Toxicology","Ecotoxicology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4131

Muscle mass loss and wasting are characteristic features of patients with chronic conditions including cancer. Therapeutic options are still scarce. We hypothesized that cachexia-induced muscle oxidative stress may be attenuated in response to treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor-selective...

["Respiratory Medicine","Metabolic Sciences"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4109

Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs...

["Ecology","Veterinary Medicine","Virology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4060

Ocean warming is a major threat to coral reefs, leading to an increasing frequency and amplitude of coral bleaching events, where the coral and its algal symbiont associations breakdown. Long-term change and resilience of a symbiont community in coral juveniles...

["Biodiversity","Ecology","Marine Biology","Molecular Biology","Climate Change Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4055

Background In recent years, next generation high throughput sequencing technologies have proven to be useful tools for investigations concerning the genomics or transcriptomics also of non-model species. Consequently, ornithologists have adopted these technologies...

["Bioinformatics","Genomics","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4045
13 downloads
152 views

We investigate hybridization and introgression between ecologically distinct sister species of silverside fish in the Gulf of California through combined analysis of morphological, sequence, and genotypic data. Water diversions in the past century turned the Colorado...

["Biogeography","Conservation Biology","Evolutionary Studies","Aquatic and Marine Chemistry","Ecohydrology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4056
8 downloads
82 views

Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract...

["Cell Biology","Translational Medicine"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4144
8 downloads
101 views

Propensities for different amino acids within a protein site change in the course of evolution, so that an amino acid deleterious in a particular species may be acceptable at the same site in a different species. Here, we study the amino acid-changing variants...

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4143
8 downloads
90 views

Artificial night light has the potential to significantly alter visually-dependent species interactions. However, examples of disruptions of species interactions through changes in light remain rare and how artificial night light may alter predator–prey relationships...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Entomology","Environmental Sciences","Environmental Impacts"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4070
8 downloads
46 views

Good control of experiment variability is critical to experiment success, and many methods are available for quantifying variation in data. Popular methods for measuring variability in data typically uses a statistical distribution such as a standard normal distribution,...

["Statistics"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3460v1
171 downloads
3,254 views

Assessing the numbers and distribution of threatened species is a central challenge in conservation, often made difficult because the species of concern are rare and elusive. For some predators, this may be compounded by their being sparsely distributed over large...

["Conservation Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4096
37 downloads
206 views

Accurate taxonomic resolution in light microscopy analyses of microalgae is essential to achieve high quality, comparable results in both floristic analyses and biomonitoring studies. A number of closely related diatom taxa have been detected to date co-occurring...

["Bioinformatics","Ecology","Marine Biology","Taxonomy","Freshwater Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4159

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