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Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.357

Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established...

["Bioengineering","Veterinary Medicine","Orthopedics","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.353

Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory...

["Entomology","Parasitology","Epidemiology","Pediatrics","Public Health"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.351

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics","Microbiology","Infectious Diseases"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.340

Mutualisms play a central role in the origin and maintenance of biodiversity. Because many mutualisms have strong demographic effects, interspecific variation in partner quality could have important consequences for population dynamics. Nevertheless, few studies...

["Ecology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.368v1

Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a...

["Science Policy"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.369v1

Antifreeze proteins (AFP) in living organisms play a key role in their tolerance to extremely cold temperatures and have wide range of biotechnological applications. But on account of diversity, their identification has been challenging to biologists. Earlier work...

["Computational Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.224v3

The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Nutrition"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.350

Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Ecosystem Science","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.348

Based on psychophysical evidence about how learning of visuomotor transformation generalizes, it has been suggested that movements are planned on the basis of movement direction and magnitude, i.e., the vector connecting movement origin and targets. This notion...

["Neuroscience"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.342

Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in the western world. Regular physical activity is known to be highly beneficial for improving cardiovascular health status. Methods:The current abstract is based on the authors own data and a literature...

["Cell Biology","Diabetes and Endocrinology","Epidemiology","Kinesiology","Metabolic Sciences"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.367v1

The past influences the present and future; for example, in computational chemistry, simplifying assumptions and approximations critical to problem-solving in the pre-computing era remains relevant today in allowing simulation of larger systems with reasonable...

["Biochemistry","Bioengineering","Biophysics","Computational Biology","Computational Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.365v1

Long-lived marine megavertebrates (e.g. sharks, turtles, mammals, and seabirds) are inherently vulnerable to anthropogenic mortality. Although some mathematical models have been applied successfully to manage these animals, more detailed treatments are often needed...

["Computational Biology","Ecology","Marine Biology","Mathematical Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.364v1

Background: Evidence denotes a direct association between parity and overnutrition in developing societies. This work aims to assess the relationship between them in Peruvian women, and to investigate whether this association varies by place of residence and socioeconomic...

["Epidemiology","Nutrition","Public Health","Women's Health"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.363v1

When net deforestation declines in the tropics, attention will be drawn to the composition and structure of the retained, restored, invaded, and created forests. At that point the seemingly inexorable trends towards increased intensities of exploitation and management...

["Biodiversity","Conservation Biology","Environmental Sciences"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.362v1

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