Trace contaminant removal is of contemporary concern in drinking water and wastewater treatment, given increasing evidence of potential toxicity of various heavy metals and metalloids in water at parts per billion (ppb) concentration levels. Currently, only high...

["Biochemistry","Bioengineering","Biotechnology","Aquatic and Marine Chemistry","Environmental Contamination and Remediation"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3423v1

Background. A wealth of data on the networks of ecological interactions present in the modern biota can be readily obtained, due to the ease of unlimited access to the living organisms that form these networks. In contrast, understanding of such interactions in...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Plant Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3422v1

Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the ‘river dolphins’. The four dolphin genera that make up the ‘river dolphins’ (Inia geoffrensis,...

["Evolutionary Studies","Taxonomy","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4090

Background Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome...

["Microbiology","Dermatology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4084

Background As the world’s second-largest economy, China has launched health reforms for the second time and invested significant funding in medical informatics (MI) since 2010; however, few studies have been conducted on the outcomes of this ambitious cause. Objective...

["Bioinformatics","Clinical Trials","Science and Medical Education"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4082

The advent of next-generation sequencing tools has made it possible to conduct fine-scale surveys of population differentiation and genome-wide scans for signatures of selection in non-model organisms. Such surveys are of particular importance in sharply declining...

["Conservation Biology","Genomics","Marine Biology","Climate Change Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4077

Background Laying hens are often kept in barn or free-range systems where they must negotiate level changes in the house to access resources. However, collisions and resultant keel fractures are commonplace. Producers sometimes add ramps to make raised areas more...

["Animal Behavior","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4069

In this paper, we have presented a microwave scattering analysis from multiple human head models. This study incorporates different levels of detail in the human head models and its effect on microwave scattering phenomenon. Two levels of detail are taken into...

["Bioengineering","Biophysics","Radiology and Medical Imaging","Computational Science"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4061

Background Tartary buckwheat (TB), a crop rich in protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids, has been reported to have an effect on Type II diabetes (T2D), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL). However, limited information is available about the relationship...

["Bioinformatics","Diabetes and Endocrinology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.4042

Transcriptome resources for social insects have the potential to provide new insight into polyphenism, i.e., how divergent phenotypes arise from the same genome. Here we present a transcriptome based on paired-end RNA sequencing data for the ant Formica exsecta...

["Bioinformatics","Computational Biology","Entomology","Evolutionary Studies","Genomics"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3998

Rapid uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau and climate change in Asia are thought to have profoundly modulated the diversification of most of the species distributed throughout Asia. The ranoid tree frog genus Rhacophorus, the largest genus in the Rhacophoridae, is widely...

["Biodiversity","Biogeography"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.3995
3 downloads
16 views

Outcomes research exists incorporating non-digital games in veterinary education; however, little research examines outcomes from digital applications. Bauman’s Layered-Learning Model was applied to investigate whether a digital matching game produced short-term...

["Veterinary Medicine","Science and Medical Education","Histology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3421v1
2 downloads
25 views

Effective approaches for assessing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are important to multiple scientific disciplines. Mitochondrial haplogroups characterize branch points in the phylogeny of mtDNA. Several tools exist for mitochondrial haplogroup classification....

["Genetics","Genomics"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3420v1
67 downloads
451 views

The Drosophila melanogaster white-eyed w1118 line serves as a blank control, allowing genetic recombination of any gene of interest along with a readily recognizable marker. w1118 flies display behavioral susceptibility to environmental stimulation such as light....

["Animal Behavior","Computational Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2908v3
133 downloads
1,027 views

Today there are no grammar systems, which allow the creation of a fundamentally new word and concept. All existing grammar systems only work by referring to previously chosen terms, on the bases of which all definitions are created. Implementation of operation...

["Artificial Intelligence","Computational Linguistics","Natural Language and Speech"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1576v3

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