[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
2 manuscripts available for review volunteers
November 28, 2017

Solitary bees in seasonal environments have to align their life-cycles with favorable environmental conditions and resources; the timing of their emergence is highly fitness relevant. Overwintering temperature influences the emergence date and body weight at emergence in several bee species. A high variability in emergence dates among specimens overwintering at the same temperatures suggests that the timing of emergence also depends on individual body conditions. However, possible causes for this variability such as individual differences in body size or weight have hardly been studied.

In a climate chamber experiment with two spring-emerging mason bees (Osmia cornuta and O. bicornis) we investigated the relationship between temperature, body size, which is not affected by overwintering temperature, body weight and emergence date. Our study shows that body weight declined during hibernation more strongly in warm than in cold overwintering temperatures. Although bees emerged earlier in warm than in cold overwintering temperatures, at the time of emergence, bees in warm overwintering temperatures had a lower body weight than bees in cold temperatures (all except male O. cornuta). Among specimens that experienced the same overwintering temperatures, small and light bees emerged later than their larger and heavier conspecifics. By means of a simple mechanistic model we are able to reveal that spring-emerging solitary bees follow a strategic approach and emerge at a date that is most promising for their individual fitness expectations.

Our results suggest that increased overwintering temperature reduces bee fitness because it decreases body weight at emergence. For adjusting emergence dates, bees do not only use temperature but also their individual body condition as triggers. This may explain differing responses to climate warming within and among bee populations and may have consequences for bee-plant interactions and the persistence of bee populations under climate change.

November 24, 2017
Cycads, an ancient group of gymnosperms, that are almost all threatened or endangered an are now popular landscape plants. The Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS), Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), has been one of the most serious pests of cycads in recent years; however, the potential distribution range and the management policy of this pest are unclear. A potential risk map of CAS was created by MaxEnt and using occurrence data under changing climatic conditions. Moreover, this research provide a theoretical reference framework for developing policy for the management and control of this invasive pest. The model suggested the current invasive risk was mainly constrained by the annual temperature range (Bio07), mean temperature of coldest quarter (Bio11) and mean temperature of driest quarter (Bio09). Meanwhile, the niche models showed high environmental suitability for the continents of Asia and North America, where the species has already been recorded. The potential expansions or reductions of distribution ranges were also predicted under different climate change conditions. Although biotic factor and spread factors were not considered in the current analysis, using climatic factors to achieve a better understanding of the invasion patterns of this species can help improve the management of this invasive species and develop policies for its control.


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