[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
4 manuscripts available for review volunteers
June 14, 2017
The public reputation of spiders is that they are deadly poisonous, brown and nondescript, and hairy and ugly. There are tales describing how they lay eggs in human skin, frequent toilet seats in airports, and crawl into your mouth when you are sleeping. Misinformation about spiders in the popular media and on the World Wide Web is rampant, leading to distorted perceptions and negative feelings about spiders. Despite these negative feelings, however, spiders offer intrigue and mystery and can be used to effectively engage even arachnophobic individuals. As such, we contend that spider biology can be a convincing hook for engaging people of all ages in science-related learning. Towards this end, and in order to provide an enthusiastic knowledge base for spider-related learning, we provide essential information about spider biology followed by a compilation of Spider World Records. We choose a world-record style format, as it is known to be an effective tool of engaging youth and adults alike. We group our records into the categories of Taxonomy, Morphology/Physiology and Ecology/Behaviour. We further reported on curiosities and clarify fake news about these underappreciated animals. Our contribution is specifically aimed to raise public awareness and attractiveness of spiders, meanwhile providing the first official knowledge base for world spider records.
June 10, 2017
Plant derived pesticides could be useful alternatives to manage the insect pests. The present study was conducted to evaluate the ovicidal and growth inhibition effects of acetonic leaves extract of Thevetia peruviana against Bactrocera zonata. The eggs of B. zonata of 24, 48, and 72 h aged were treated with five concentrations of the (100, 250, 500,750, 1000 ppm) and water as control for comparison. Hatchability of eggs was observed at 24, 48, and 72 hours post treatment. First, second, and third instars were also treated with the above concentrations to check the larvicidal activities of the extracts. The results revealed that the percentage hatchability of 24 hour aged eggs significantly greater than that of other two intervals. Maximum larval inhibition of 83.33% was observed in freshly laid eggs (24h) treated with the concentration 1000 ppm, Prolonged larval, pupal and total developmental periods was evident during the first three instars. The percentage of pupation and adult emergence was also significantly (p <0.05) decreased with the increase in concentration of extract treatments in all the treated instars. Pupal weight of larvae of the first and second instars treated 750 and 1000 ppm was effectively reduced as compared to control and pupae were malformed. More than half of the pupal mortality 50.4 and 57.6% was recorded in first instar treated with 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. Our results demonstrate that T. peruviana acetonic leaves extracts has ovicidal and larvicidal potential against B. zonata and could be helpful in the development of ecofriendly strategy for its management.
June 5, 2017
Baculoviruses are a family of invertebrate-specific pathogenic viruses that are able to persist outside for a long time owing to the forming of occlusion bodies (OBs). In spite of this ability, the UV spectra of sunlight that reaches the surface of the Earth is the essential factor that limits the survival of baculoviruses outside. In the current study, we compared the UV tolerance of two strains of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV), which were isolated in spatially different regions (LdMNPV-27/0 in Western Siberia (Russia) and LdMNPV-45/0 in North America (USA)) and dramatically differ in their virulence. We exposed the studied strains to sunlight in an open area for 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 hours and then perorally inoculated host larvae with same doses of virus (5x105) and with dose lead to same effect (LD90). We found that strain LdMNPV-45/0, which previously showed high virulence against L. dispar larvae, was more sensitive to UV irradiation (estimated as the as relative rate of inactivation (r, h -1) and as half-life of the virus (τ1/2, h)) compared to LdMNPV-27/0. The same situation was observed in mortality speed: LdMNPV-45/0 infected larvae took faster to die compared to LdMNPV-27/0 strain when we do not exposed virus to UV treatment, while this difference was disappear when strains were exposed under UV. We suppose that the rapid loss of potency of LdMNPV-45/0 was mediated by a rapid inactivation of structural proteins (enhancin) encoded by the virus enhancin factor-1 gene, which was absent in the genome of LdMNPV-27/0.
May 20, 2017
In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management (IPM) strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

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