[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
2 manuscripts available for review volunteers
February 6, 2018
Oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa increases net photosynthesis, and basal and secondary metabolism enzyme activitiesin Eucalyptus globulus trees. Here, trees were sprayed on leaves with water (control) or with OC kappa 1 mg ml-1, once a week, four times in total, and cultivated for 17 additional weeks (21 weeks in total). Height, level of glucose, trehalose, TOR phosphorylated in Ser2448 (TOR-P) and transcripts encoding TOR and S6 kinase (S6K) as well as the level of transcripts encoding proteins and enzymes involved in glucose accumulation, photosynthesis, C, N and S assimilation, and synthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and terpenes were determined. Treated trees showed an increase in height of 105% compared to controls at week 21. Treated trees showed an increase in glucose and trehalose level having an oscillatory pattern with maximal levels for glucose at week 1, 9-11 and 17-19, and for trehalose at weeks 1-3, 5, 8-9, 12, 15-16 and 18-21. TOR-P showed increases from week 1 until the end of the experiment with peaks at weeks 2, 6, 12 and 16. The level of tor transcripts showed peaks at weeks 3, 6, 10-11 and 13 whereas the level of s6k transcripts remained unchanged. In addition, transcripts encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis, and enzymes involved in glucose accumulation, C, N and S assimilation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites showed an oscillatory pattern with increases mainly at weeks 3-4, 5-6, 10-11, and in some cases at weeks 13-14 and 16-18. Thus, the increases in trehalose levels better correlate with increases in TOR-P and transcript levels. Therefore, OC kappa induced an increase in the levels of glucose, trehalose, TOR-P and expression of genes involved in photosynthesis, and basal and secondary metabolism which may explain, at least in part, the increase in growth and defense responses in E. globulus trees.
January 30, 2018
Homeoviscous adaptation (HVA) is a key cellular response by which fish protect their membranes against thermal stress. We investigated evolutionary HVA (long time scale) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic fish. Membrane lipid composition was determined for four Perciformes fish: two closely related Antarctic notothenioid species (Trematomus bernacchii and Pagothenia borchgrevinki); a diversified related notothenioid Antarctic icefish (Chionodraco hamatus); and a New Zealand species (Notolabrus celidotus). The membrane lipid compositions were consistent across the three Antarctic species and these were significantly different from that of the New Zealand species. Furthermore, acclimatory HVA (short time periods with seasonal changes) was investigated to determine whether stenothermal Antarctic fish, which evolved in the cold, stable environment of the Southern Ocean, have lost the acclimatory capacity to modulate their membrane saturation states, making them vulnerable to anthropogenic global warming. We compared liver membrane lipid composition in two closely related Antarctic fish species acclimated at 0 °C (control temperature), 4 °C for a period of 14 days in Trematomus bernacchii and 28 days for Pagothenia borchgrevinki, and 6 °C for 7 days in both species. Thermal acclimation at 4 °C did not result in changed membrane saturation states in either Antarctic species. Despite this, membrane functions were not compromised, as indicated by declining serum osmolality, implying positive compensation by enhanced hypo-osmoregulation. Increasing the temperature to 6 °C did not change the membrane lipids of P. borchgrevinki. However, in T. bernacchii, thermal acclimation at 6 °C resulted in an increase of membrane saturated fatty acids and a decline in unsaturated fatty acids. This is the first study to show a homeoviscous response to higher temperatures in an Antarctic fish, although for only one of the two species examined.


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