Predicting the potential distributions of the cycad aulacaspis scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) under climate change scenarios and the implications for management
Cycads, an ancient group of gymnosperms, that are almost all threatened or endangered an are now popular landscape plants. The Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS), Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), has been one of the most serious pests of cycads in recent years; however, the potential distribution range and the management policy of this pest are unclear. A potential risk map of CAS was created by MaxEnt and using occurrence data under changing climatic conditions. Moreover, this research provide a theoretical reference framework for developing policy for the management and control of this invasive pest. The model suggested the current invasive risk was mainly constrained by the annual temperature range (Bio07), mean temperature of coldest quarter (Bio11) and mean temperature of driest quarter (Bio09). Meanwhile, the niche models showed high environmental suitability for the continents of Asia and North America, where the species has already been recorded. The potential expansions or reductions of distribution ranges were also predicted under different climate change conditions. Although biotic factor and spread factors were not considered in the current analysis, using climatic factors to achieve a better understanding of the invasion patterns of this species can help improve the management of this invasive species and develop policies for its control.