[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
Solitary bees in seasonal environments have to align their life-cycles with favorable environmental conditions and resources; the timing of their emergence is highly fitness relevant. Overwintering temperature influences the emergence date and body weight at emergence in several bee species. A high variability in emergence dates among specimens overwintering at the same temperatures suggests that the timing of emergence also depends on individual body conditions. However, possible causes for this variability such as individual differences in body size or weight have hardly been studied.
In a climate chamber experiment with two spring-emerging mason bees (Osmia cornuta and O. bicornis) we investigated the relationship between temperature, body size, which is not affected by overwintering temperature, body weight and emergence date. Our study shows that body weight declined during hibernation more strongly in warm than in cold overwintering temperatures. Although bees emerged earlier in warm than in cold overwintering temperatures, at the time of emergence, bees in warm overwintering temperatures had a lower body weight than bees in cold temperatures (all except male O. cornuta). Among specimens that experienced the same overwintering temperatures, small and light bees emerged later than their larger and heavier conspecifics. By means of a simple mechanistic model we are able to reveal that spring-emerging solitary bees follow a strategic approach and emerge at a date that is most promising for their individual fitness expectations.
Our results suggest that increased overwintering temperature reduces bee fitness because it decreases body weight at emergence. For adjusting emergence dates, bees do not only use temperature but also their individual body condition as triggers. This may explain differing responses to climate warming within and among bee populations and may have consequences for bee-plant interactions and the persistence of bee populations under climate change.
The Californian single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla var. californiarum), a subspecies of the single-leaf pinyon (the world's only 1-needled pine), inhabits semi-arid zones of the Mojave Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California (US) and also of northern Baja California (Mexico). This subspecies is distributed as a relict in the geographically isolated arid Sierra La Asamblea, between 1,010 and 1,631 m, with mean annual precipitation levels of between 184 and 288 mm. The aim of this research was i) to establish the distribution of Pinus monophylla var. californiarum in Sierra La Asamblea, Baja California (Mexico) using Sentinel-2 images, and ii) to test and describe the relationship between this distribution of Pinus monophylla and five topographic and 18 climate variables. We hypothesized that i) the Sentinel-2 images can be used to accurately detect the P. monophylla distribution in the study site due to higher resolution (x3) and increased number of bands (x2) relative to Landsat-8, and ii) the topographical variables aspect, ruggedness and slope are particularly influential because they represent important microhabitat factors that can affect where conifers can become established and persist.
Methods. It was used an atmospherically corrected a 12-bit Sentinel-2A MSI image with eleven spectral bands in the visible, near infrared, and short-wave infrared light region combined with the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Supervised classification of this image was carried out using a backpropagation-type artificial neural network algorithm. Stepwise multivariate binominal logistical regression and Random Forest regression including cross valuation (10 fold) were used to model the associations between presence/absence of pinesand the five topographical and 18 climate variables.
Results. Probably, P. monophylla covers 4,955 hectares in the isolated in Sierra La Asamblea, Baja California (Mexico) via supervised classification of Sentinel-2 satellite images. The NDVI was one of the variables that contributed to the detection and clearly separated the forest cover (NDVI > 0.35) from the other vegetation cover (NDVI < 0.20). The ruggedness was the best environmental predictor variable and indicated that the probability of P. monophylla occurrence was higher than 50% when the degree of ruggedness was greater than 17.5 m. When average temperature in the warmest month increased from 23.5 to 25.2 °C, the probability of occurrence of P. monophylla decreased.
Discussion. The classification accuracy (Kappa) was similar to other studies using Sentinel-2A MSI images.Ruggedness is known to generate microclimates and provides shade that decreases evapotranspiration from pines in desert environments. Identification of P. monophylla in Sierra La Asamblea as the most southern populations represents an opportunity for research on climatic tolerance and community responses to climatic variation and change.
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been prevalent in swine herds in China since 2002, causing severe economic loss to the pig industry. The number of live pigs in southeast China is > 20 million. Since information on the genetic variation of PCV2 in the Fujian province is limited, the objective of the present work was to investigate the epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of PCV2 in southeast China from 2013 to 2017. Of the 685 samples collected from 90 different swine herds from 2013 to 2017, 356 samples from 84 different swine herds were positive for PCV2. PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2d, and PCV2e co-existed in the Fujian province, with PCV2d-2 being the predominant circulating strain in swineherds and PCV2e being reported for the first time in China. Strikingly, PCV2-FJ-water DNA comes from contaminated river water and not infected animals. Sequence comparison among all isolates indicated that 92 isolates shared approximately 78.7–100% nucleotide identity and 74.5–100% amino acid identity for open reading frame (ORF). Amino acid alignment showed that the Cap protein of PCV2e and two strains (CN-FJ-CTS04 and FJ-6S-2017) differed markedly from those of PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, and PCV2d. These results indicated that various PCV2 genotypes exist in China, and that PCV2 is continuously evolving, leading to rapid emergence of new variant stains.
Background. Different anticancer drugs are used in combination or alone to treat breast cancer depending upon the status of the patient. Oncologists need to know a drug’s efficacy; therefore, they compare different chemotherapies by considering side effects and overall survival so that suitable drugs can be prescribed. We present a comparison of adjuvant chemotherapies treating breast cancer with docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide (TC) and doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC) showing pathological markers and overall survival.
Method. For 4 to 8 cycles, (after every 21 days) out of 358 patients, 189 received TC (140 ml/m2 of docetaxel (IV) plus 1000 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide) and 169 women were treated with AC (50/100 ml/m2 of doxorubicin (IV) plus 1000 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide. On the basis of patients’ assessment by pathological markers, side effects of docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide are listed in our database using R programming language. The common factors and side effects given in MedlinePlus, NIH US database and from our database are separated to be included in comparison for this study. Statistically, we used Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity of Proportions at α = 0.05.
Results. There was no significant difference between proportions of patients with vomiting, extreme tiredness, diarrhoea, mild anaemia, stability and overall survival because p value > 0.05. However, p value < 0.05 for AC remains less toxic by 22.6%, 25.7% and 25.3% than TC in changes in taste, muscle pain and hands burning respectively, whereas TC remains less toxic by 52.9%, 26.3%, 11.3%, 32.5%, 15.5% and 1.75% in dizziness, sore throat, moderate anaemia, weight loss, blood transfusion and haemoglobin level respectively.
Discussion. TC is less toxic than AC in more aspects, whereas both combinations have same overall survival rate.
Objective: The analysis of ill-health related job loss may be a relevant indicator for the prioritization of actions in the workplaces or in the field of public health, and a target for health promotion. The aim of this study was to analyse the medical causes, the incidence, and the characteristics of employees medically unfit to their job.
Methods: This one-year prospective study included all workers followed by occupational physicians in an occupational health service in the South of the France. Our study design allowed two data frames to be merged (followed up workers and “unfit” patients who lost their jobs due to ill-health). We performed a multivariate analysis in order to adjust the Odds ratio for the age groups, sex, occupation and the activity sectors which are strongly associated with job loss.
Results: Seventeen occupational physicians followed 51,132 workers. The all-cause incidence of being unfit to return to one’s job was 0.778%. The two main causes of being unfit for one’s job were musculoskeletal disorders (47.2%) and psychopathology (38.4%). Being over 50 years old [Odds ratio (OR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [2.13-3.25] and being a woman [OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.21-1.91] were associated with the all-cause unfitness, independent of occupations and activity sectors.Conclusions: Identification of occupational and demographic determinants independently associated with ill-health related job loss may provide significant and cost-effective arguments for health promotion and job loss prevention.
Background. Participation rate is one of the main challenges medical researchers face. We examined how demographic background and trust in medical research affect the willingness of people to participate in medical research in Taiwan.
Methods. Data from the 2011 Taiwan Genomic Survey were used. A total of 3,159 people aged 18 to 70 years were sampled, and 1,538 of them completed the survey. Missing data were excluded. A total of 1,389 respondents were included in the final analysis.
Results. About 12 percent of the respondents answered that they would be willing to participate in medical research. Respondents who had a college degree or above and were married orlived with a significant other were less likely to participate in medical research. By contrast, respondents who were men and who or their close family members had a biomedicine-related degree were more likely to participate in medical research. After adjustment for demographic factors, respondents who expressed trust in doctors who conduct medical research, agreed that doctors would never ask them to join a medical research study that might harm them, thought that participating in a medical research study is safe, and agreed that medical researchers have no selfish reasons for doing research were more likely to participate in medical research.
Discussion. Some of our findings, such as the effect of education level and marital status on participation in medical research, are different from the findings of most previous studies conducted in other countries. This study is useful for the development of strategies for improving participant recruitment.
Is this open peer review?
No, peer review is still single-blind and all recommendations are private between the authors and Academic Editor. However, any reviewer has the option to sign their report, and once accepted for publication then that review can be shown publicly - again this is optional.
Will I be guaranteed to review if I volunteer?
No. Volunteering is not a guarantee that you will be asked to review. This is for many reasons. For one, reviewers must have relevant qualifications for any manuscript and void of any conflicts of interest. Additionally, it could be that enough reviewers have accepted an invitation to review already, in which case we would not invite any more.
Why aren't there more manuscripts available?
Manuscripts are shown when authors have opted-in for obtaining reviewers through the reviewer-match service. Additionally, there may already be enough reviewers found through other means, for example, invitations sent by the Academic Editor in charge.
What are the editorial criteria?
Please visit the editorial criteria page for initial guidance. You will also be given additional information if invited to review.