[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
24 manuscripts available for review volunteers
January 12, 2018
Parkinson’s disease is a widespread condition caused by degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. A number of proteins are known to be important to signalling mechanisms present in the midbrain during natural dopamine neuron development, and may be utilised to better produce dopamine neurons in vitro. Relative expression levels of proteins were obtained from substantia nigra tissue of rats from embryonic days E11 through E14 using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification. This project analysed the dataset obtained, with an emphasis on relative expression levels of proteins across the four-day period. Bioinformatics searching of online databases reduced the dataset from 3325 proteins to a shortlist of five worthy of further investigation. It is hoped that the proteins identified using these techniques will help to refine protocols for the production of dopamine neurons in vitro.
January 3, 2018

Background. Good results of drug-eluting balloon (DEB) use are achieved in in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions, small vessel disease, long lesions, and bifurcations. However, few reports exist about DEB use in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ISR. This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy of DEB for acute MI with ISR.

Methods. Between November 2011 and December 2015, 117 consecutive patients experienced acute MI including ST-segment elevation MI, and non-ST-segment elevation MI due to ISR, and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We divided our patients into two groups: (1) PCI with further DEB, and (2) PCI with further drug-eluting stent (DES). Clinical outcomes such as target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, recurrent MI, stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were analyzed.

Results. Patients’ average age was 68.37 ± 11.41 years; 69.2 % were male. A total of 75 patients were enrolled in the DEB group, and 42 patients were enrolled in the DES group. The baseline characteristics between the two groups were the same without statistical differences except gender. The major adverse cardiac cerebral events rate (34.0 % vs. 35.7 %; p=0.688) and cardiovascular mortality rate (11.7 % vs. 12.8 %; p=1.000) were similar in both groups.

Conclusions. DEB is a reasonable strategy for Acute MI with ISR. Compared with DES, DEB an alternative strategy which yielded acceptable short-term outcomes and similar 1-year clinical outcomes.

January 2, 2018
This study evaluated the impacts of different weed managements on weed community, soil health and economic performance in the wheat-maize (WM) and garlic-soybean (GS) rotations. Four treatments (H0T, no herbicide with tillage; H0T0, without both herbicide and tillage; HT, both herbicide and tillage; HT0, herbicide without tillage) were designed for both rotations. Eighteen weed species were recorded in the WM rotation, with life forms of 62% for annuals, 12% for annual + perennial and 20% for perennials. While in the GS rotation, there were 17 weed species, with 71% being annuals. When crop rotation changed from WM to GS, the topsoil layer seed bank (0-5 cm) significantly decreased (by 137%, P<0.05). GS rotation always had higher earthworm densities than that of WM under the same treatment. Organic weed control (H0T, H0T0) from both WM and GS added more soil organic matters than the chemical methods (HT and HT0), indicating that weeds had functions in maintaining soil carbon and moisture. Economically, up to 69% higher net profit has been achieved in the GS than WM for their organic products. This study provides an ecological basis to guide organic farming practices, especially for weed management in the future.
January 1, 2018
The allocation of nutrients links ecosystem supply services to the functional traits and development of plants. This is particularly true for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), which are important limiting resources in nature and are related to many aspects of plant biology. We investigated the scaling relationships of the N and P contents within specific organ types (leaves, stems, and roots) and of the same nutrients across different organs of Picea seedlings from nine taxa grown under greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that the N and P contents were highly correlated within and across plant organs. A common isometric scaling relationship between N and P was observed in spruce leaves, stems, and roots. The N and P contents had different scaling exponents in different plant organs. The scaling relationships of the N content across different organ types tended to be allometric between stems and non-stem organs, and isometric between leaves and roots. For P contents, similar scaling relationships were also found in the leaves, stems, and roots. These results implied that the partitioning of nutrients within and across major organs may be constrained by the intrinsic characteristics of plants per se as a result of long-term evolutionary processes.
December 29, 2017
In a typical clinical gait analysis, the gait patterns of pathological individuals are commonly compared with the typically faster, comfortable pace of healthy subjects. However, due to potential bias related to gait speed, this comparison may not be valid. Publicly available gait datasets have failed to address this issue. Therefore, the goal of this study was to present a publicly available dataset of 42 healthy volunteers (24 young adults and 18 older adults) who walked both overground and on a treadmill at a range of gait speeds. Their lower-extremity and pelvis kinematics were measured using a three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture system. The external forces during both overground and treadmill walking were collected using force plates and an instrumented treadmill, respectively. The results include both raw and processed kinematic and kinetic data in different file formats: c3d and ASCII files. In addition, a metadata file is provided that contain demographic and anthropometric data and data related to each file in the dataset. All data are available at Figshare (DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.5722711). We foresee several applications of this public dataset, including to examine the influences of speed, age, and environment (overground vs. treadmill) on gait biomechanics, to meet educational needs, and, with the inclusion of additional participants, to use as a normative dataset.
December 29, 2017
The architecture of the cotton plant, including the fruit branch formation and flowering pattern, is the most important characteristic that directly influences light exploitation, yield and cost of planting. DNA methylation hasbeenobserved during different stages of developmentin both plantsandanimals and is associated with the regulation of gene expression, chromatin organization, genome protection and other functions. Here, we investigated whether global epigenomic reprogramming occurs during the development of fruiting branches and floral buds in cotton at three stages: the seedling stage, the pre-squaring stage and the squaring stage. We identified 22 DNA methylation-related genes that potentially encode DNA methyltransferases and demethylases in cotton. The CMT-, DRM2- and MET1-homologous genes were upregulated during the pre-squaring and squaring stages, implying that DNA methylation may be related to the development of floral buds or fruiting branches. Global methylation levels during all three stages were not notably different, but the CHG-type methylation levels of non-expressed gene s were higher than those of expressed genes. In the circadian rhythm pathway, expression levels of the CRY-, LHY- and CO-homologous genes may be associated with changes in DNA methylation during the different developmental stages involved in fruiting branch and floral bud formation.
December 25, 2017
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term highly physical activity affects inhibition control ability among postmenopausal women by evaluation Go/Nogo tasks from behavioral and neuroelectric perspectives. Method: This prospective trial included 251 postmenopausal women. Subjects were screened by both physical and psychological tests and grouped into a long-term highly physical activity group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30) according to their physical activity level and insisting time. A Go/Nogo task was used to assess the inhibition. Results: The long-term highly physical activity group had faster Go RT than the control group, and no significant differences were found in the accuracy of the Nogo task between two groups. The N2 amplitude was largest at FC2, and the N2 latency in the long-term highly physical activity group was shorter than that in the control group. The P3 amplitude under Go condition was smaller than Nogo condition and a significant interaction was observed in condition, electrode and group. The P3 latency under Go condition was significant shorter than under Nogo condition. Conclusion: Long-term highly physical activity group increases the efficiency of the inhibitory control system by increasing the activity of response monitoring processes. Also, the right frontal-center region plays a sensitive role in this inhibitory process.
December 23, 2017
Background. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) induces greater brain injury and neurological impairment than those without AAI. It is not clear whether chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) may cause similar outcomes in ICH rats. Methods. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two groups: CAC group (n = 8) fed with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 4 weeks, and Control group (n = 8) fed with water only. ICH was induced by collagenase infusion into the striata. Coronal T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging were generated with a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to investigate the changes of hemorrhagic volume and edema throughout the injury and recovery stages of ICH. Results. The hematoma volume was larger in the CAC group than in the control group (P < 0.001). These findings, however, cannot explain the findings that at post-ICH, progressive edema formation and neurological impairment were not significantly different between two groups. T2-weighted imaging is ideal for monitoring the hematoma volume in rats. Discussion. CAC induces larger hematoma volume in rats with ICH, but brain edema and neurological impairment are not correlated to CAC. The findings may suggest the ICH-induced neurological impairments relate more to the brain edema formation than hematoma enlargement.
December 22, 2017
The cold-climate hypothesis is the main and most supported explanation of the evolution of viviparity among reptiles. This hypothesis sustains that viviparity arose as a means to save eggs from an increased mortality in nests linked with low temperatures. In this sense, some authors have stated that viviparity could constitute an evolutionary constraint. However, the link between evolutionary constraints and the evolution of ecological niches has not been well studied. Here, we study the climatic niche evolution of a group of viviparous lizards from North America to test whether the diversification of the group is linked with Phylogenetic Niche Conservatism (PNC). We evaluated phylogenetic signals and trait evolution, besides a reconstruction of ancestral climate tolerances, and did not find PNC in the ecological niche of the species in the group. Surprisingly, we did not find conservatism in any bioclimatic variables associated with temperature; we only had evidence of conservatism in Precipitation Seasonality (Bio15) and Precipitation of Coldest Quarter (Bio19). Analysis of relative disparity through time (DTT) indicates high divergence around 4.0 MYA and 0.65 MYA that coincides with orogenic and glacial periods. There is no evidence that climatic niche differentiation was the main factor in the diversification of the studied group. Orogenic and glacial periods probably promote cycles of the availability of new territories and isolation, which could promote the rapid accumulation of ecological differences between the species of the group.
December 22, 2017
Prolonged life expectancy in humans has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of cancers. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. It accounts for one fourth of all diagnosed cancers and affects one in eight females worldwide. Given the high BC prevalence, there is a practical need for demographic screening of the disease. In the present study, we re-analyzed a large microRNA (miRNA) expression dataset (GSE73002), with the goal of optimizing miRNA biomarker selection using neural network cascade (NNC) modeling. Our results identified numerous candidate miRNA biomarkers that are technically suitable for BC detection. We combined three miRNAs (miR-1246, miR-6756-5p, and miR-8073) into a single panel to generate a NNC model, which successfully detected BC with 97.1% accuracy in an independent validation cohort comprising 429 BC patients and 895 healthy controls. In contrast, at least seven miRNAs were merged in a multiple linear regression model to obtain equivalent diagnostic performance (96.4% accuracy in the independent validation set). Our findings suggested that suitable modeling can effectively reduce the number of miRNAs required in a biomarker panel without compromising prediction accuracy, thereby, increasing the technical possibility of early detection of BC.
December 21, 2017
Anthropogenic (or human-caused) wildfire is an increasingly important driver of ecological change on Pacific islands including southeastern Polynesia, but fire ecology studies are almost completely absent for this region. Where observations do exist, they mostly represent descriptions of fire effects on plant communities before the introduction of invasive species in the modern era. Understanding the effects of wildfire in southeastern Polynesian island vegetation communities can elucidate which species may become problematic invasives with continued wildfire activity. We review what is known about fire effects in low elevation plant communities in Polynesia. We also investigate the effects of wildfire on vegetation in three low-elevation sites (45-379 m) on the island of Mo'orea in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, which are already heavily impacted by past human land use and invasive exotic plants, but retain some native flora. We analyze plants in categories: natives, those introduced by Polynesians before European contact (1767 C.E.), and those introduced since European contact. Burned areas have the same or lower mean species richness than paired unburned sites. Although wildfire does not affect the proportions of native and introduced species, it may increase the abundance of introduced species on some sites. Non-metric multidimensional scaling indicates that unburned plant communities are more distinct from one another than are those on burned sites. We discuss conservation concerns for particular native plants absent from burned sites, as well as invasive species (including Lantana camara and Paraserianthes falcataria) that may be promoted by fire in the Pacific.
December 21, 2017
The swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an important commercial farmed fish species in China. However, it is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections, resulting in high mortality and considerable economic loss. Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) is a widely used chemical disinfectant in aquaculture, which can decrease the occurrence of diseases and improve the survival. However, environmental organic matter could affect the bactericidal effectiveness of PVP-I, and the efficacy of PVP-I in aquaculture water is still unknown. In this paper, disinfection assays were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of PVP-I against the A. hydrophila in different types of water. We found that the effective germicidal concentration of PVP-I in outdoor aquaculture water was 25 ppm during 12 hours. In indoor aquaculture water with 105 CFU/mL bacteria, 10 ppm and 20 ppm of PVP-I could kill 99 % and 100 % of the bacteria, respectively. The minimal germicidal concentration of PVP-I in deionized distilled water and Luria-Bertani broth was 1.25 ppm and 4000 ppm, respectively. Available iodine content assay in LB solutions confirmed that the organic substance had negative impact on the effectiveness of PVP-I, which was consistent with the different efficacy of PVP-I in different water samples. Acute toxicity tests showed that the 24h-LC50 of PVP-I to swamp eel was 173.82 ppm, which was much lower than the germicidal concentrations in outdoor and indoor aquaculture water, indicating its safety and effectivity to antagonize the A. hydrophila. The results presented here would be helpful to prevent the transmission of A. hydrophila in swamp eel aquaculture.
December 18, 2017
Interactions between plants and their pollinators vary in time and space at different scales. A neglected aspect of small-scale variation of plant-pollinator interactions is the role of vertical position of flowers. We conducted a series of experiments to study vertical stratification of plant-pollinator interactions in a dry grassland. We observed flower visitors on cut inflorescences of Centaurea scabiosa and Inula salicina placed at different heights above ground in two types of surrounding vegetation: short and tall. Even at such a small-scale, we detected significant shift in total visitation rate of inflorescences in response to their vertical position. In short vegetation, inflorescences close to the ground were visited more frequently, while in high vegetation, inflorescences placed higher received more visits. Moreover, we found major differences in the composition of the pollinator community on flowers at different heights. In a second experiment, we measured flower visitation rate in inflorescences of Salvia verticillata of variable height. Overall flower visitation rate increased markedly with inflorescence height. We also detected a corresponding positive pollinator-mediated selection on increased inflorescence height using data on seed set of individual plants. Overall, our results demonstrate strong vertical stratification of plant-pollinator interactions at the scale of mere decimetres. This may be an important, albeit underappreciated, driver of plant-pollinator coevolution.
December 17, 2017

Introduction: Inappropriate benzodiazepines (BZD) and z-drugs use in older populations is associated with a variety of sociodemographic and health-related factors. Recent studies reported that inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use is associated with increased age, female gender, and severe negative psychological (e.g. depression) and somatic (e.g. chronic disease) factors. The current study explores the sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use in older people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among randomly selected patients of one health insurance (“AOK North-West”) with BZD and z-drugs prescriptions in the past 12 months. The sample was stratified by appropriateness to German prescription guidelines (yes vs. no) and age (50-65 vs. >65 years). To examine the association of selected sociodemographic and psychological variables (e.g. sex, employment status, quality of life, depression) with inappropriate use a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: In total, data of 340 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 72.1 (SD=14.5) years, and the most commonly used substances were zopiclon (38.1%), oxazepam (18.1%), and lorazepam (13.8%). The mean defined daily dose (DDD) was 0.73 (SD=0.47). Insomnia was the main reason for prescribing BZD and z-drugs. Inappropriate use of BZD and z-drugs is significantly associated with unemployment (OR=2.9, 95%-CI: 1.2-7.1) and general problematic medication use (OR=0.5, 95%-CI: 0.2-1.0).

Discussion: Unemployment status and problematic medication use have a significant association with potentially inappropriate prescription of BZD and z-drugs. Divergent patterns of prescription might harbor problematic patterns of BZD and z-drugs use. The causal connection between the identified factors and problematic BZD and z-drugs prescription is not released in this paper.

Conclusion: The employment status and possible evidence of inadequate drug use may be a warning signal for the prescriber of BZD and z-drugs.

December 14, 2017
Background: Little is known about how to achieve enduring improvements in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to: 1. identify what people with COPD from South Australia and the Netherlands, and experts from COPD- and non-COPD-specific backgrounds considered as important to improve behaviours; and 2. identify areas of dissonance between these different participant groups.

Methods: A four-round Delphi study was conducted, analysed separately for each group. Free-text responses (Round 1) were collated into items within themes and rated for importance on a 9-point Likert scale (Rounds 2-3). Items meeting a priori criteria from each group were retained for rating by all groups in Round 4. Items and themes achieving a median Likert score of ≥7 and an interquartile range of ≤2 across all groups at Round 4 were judged important. Analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc tested for statistical differences between groups for importance ratings.

Results: 73 participants consented to participate in this study, of which 62 (85%) completed Round 4. In Round 4, 81 items (PA n=54; SB n=24; sleep n=3) and 18 themes (PA n=9; SB n=7; sleep n=2) were considered as important across all groups concerning: 1. disease management, 2. targeting behavioural factors, and less commonly 3. adapting the social/physical environments. There were few areas of dissonance between groups.

Conclusion: Important to our Delphi participants is a multifactorial approach to improve PA, SB and sleep. Recognising and addressing important factors may provide a basis for developing interventions to improve these behaviours long-term.
December 12, 2017

Background: China has the largest lead–acid battery (LAB) industry and market around the world, and this situation causes unavoidable emissions of Pb and other pollutants.

Methods: On the basis of a field survey on a starting–lighting–ignition (SLI) LAB plant in Zhejiang Province, this study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methods to assess the environmental impacts and environment-related costs derived from the LAB industry during the life phases, including material preparation, battery assembly, transportation, and regeneration, of the plant.

Results: Material preparation and regeneration phases contribute 3.4 and 42.2 g to Pb emission, respectively, and result in 3.29×108 CHY of environmental cost for each function unit (1 KVA·h LAB capacity). The material preparation phase is the largest mass contributor to global warming potential (GWP, 97%), photo-chemical oxidation potential (POCP, 88.9%), and eutrophication potential (EP, 82.5%) and produces 2.68×108 CHY of environmental cost.

Discussion: Decision makers in the Chinese LAB industry should replace the pyrogenic process in smelting with the use of clean energy, increase the lead recovery rate while producing the same capacity of LABs, and develop new technologies to reduce heavy metal emission, especially in the regeneration phase.

December 12, 2017

Background. Freemartinism is a condition generally occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most domestic animals such as bovine, sheep, goat and pig in this condition are sterile, but still about 15% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. However, farmers in China culled almost all bovine fertile heterosexual twin females directly due to lack of practical diagnostic approach, resulting in substantial economic and genetic-material losses both for Chinese dairy and beef industry.

Methods. In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was conducted to confirm the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were selected for this study, with three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows served as positive and negative control, respectively.

Results. PCR results showed that three heterosexual twin females were absent of SRY gene whereas only two of them were subsequently verified as fertile. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was over 14.2% in freemartin and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical differences between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female.

Discussion. Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR, rather than qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, is the most accurate method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got the relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We declare for the first time that it is the content of SRY gene, rather than its presence or absence, that determines the fertility of a heterosexual twin female.

December 10, 2017
Groin injuries are a common occurrence in field sports. However, the use of different terminology makes it difficult for practitioners to source information regarding rates, time-loss patterns, and risk factors associated with specific groin injuries. The current student aimed to apply the agreed Doha terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes to audit time-loss groin injuries in elite Gaelic football. The GAA National Injury Surveillance Database between 2008 to 2015 received forty-three datasets from seventeen teams. Groin injuries accounted for 14% (95% CI 12.1 – 16.8) of reported injuries and 18% (95% CI 9.8 – 26.1) of total time-loss. Overall 15% (95% CI 13.2 – 16.8) of players sustained a groin injury each season. Adductor-related groin pain was the most frequent groin injury (38.2%; 95% CI 32.8 – 44.0). Groin injury incidence was 1.4 per 1000 exposure hours (95% CI 1.2 – 1.5). Incidence was 7.2 (95% CI 5.6 – 9.3) times higher in match-play than in training. Elite Gaelic football teams sustained 6.0 (IQR 3 – 9) groin injuries each season. Mean time-loss from sport was 28.9 (95% CI 22.4 – 35.9) days equating to 202 (95% CI 154.6 – 265.6) days per team each season. Previously injured players were more likely to sustain a groin injury (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 – 2.4). Risk of future injury varied between classification sites. Groin injury incidences and injury burden were lower among division one teams (p<0.05). Groin injuries are a common occurrence in elite Gaelic football that compromise player availability and elevate future injury risk. Management and prevention of groin injuries should consider the reported trends of specific groin injuries associated with the utilised classification system.
December 7, 2017
In this study, a particle dry deposition model for natural water was used to calculate the atmospheric dry deposition on the Cuihu Wetland of Beijing on the basis of the data of concentrations of particles and atmospheric cations and anions, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. In addition, the atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities were simultaneously measured using a knife-edge surrogate surface, which has a sharp leading edge. The observed and calculated values were compared. Results indicated that the calculated value is comparable to the observed value. The ratios of the calculated/observed fluxes during daytime and nighttime were 1.38 and 3.47, respectively. The corresponding values during the normal, dry, and wet periods were 1.93, 2.47, and 2.36. The average ratio of the calculated/observed fluxes was 2.32. Thus, it is crucial to further improve both the laboratory and field measurements and analytical methods for the particle deposition to narrow the current uncertainty in the estimates of atmospheric dry deposition. In addition, further studies should be carried out to modify the model to extend its use for the evaluation of dry deposition on the wetlands of Beijing.
December 7, 2017
This paper reviews some of the foundations and upshots of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture productivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the implications for food security. It further highlights possible measures for adaptation and mitigation of the impacts and this is borne out of the need for urgent attention and further inquiry into the relationship between climate change and fish food security in the region. Though fish is the most important source of cheap, quality animal protein, it is grossly insufficient in most SSA diets. To guarantee the nutritional well-being of its population, a consistent supply of fish is essential. However, the region ranks high in terms of susceptibility to climate change amidst several challenges bedeviling fish production and this further threatens its efficacy. Therefore, to achieve effective management of fisheries and aquaculture through adaptation and mitigation in the face of climate fluctuations and change, it is quintessential for stakeholders to drive co-management methodologies which comprise the livelihoods, ecosystem-based and community-based approaches which are deemed to positively impact the four dimensions of food security thus contributing to the achievement of a climate friendly and food secure economy.
December 6, 2017

Background.Anoectochilus roxburghii is a widespread herbaceous plant with high medicinal value. Wild A. roxburghii resources are facing extinction due to their slow growth rate and over-exploitation. The growing market demand has led to advances in the field of artificial planting of A. roxburghii. Methods to increase the economic benefits of cultivation and the production of medicinal ingredients are thus very useful.

Methods.A. roxburghii was exposed to red light (RL), blue light (BL), yellow light (YL), green light (GL) or white light (WL) as supplemental lighting at night (18:00-02:00) in a greenhouse or was left in darkness (control, CK) to investigate the effects of various light qualities on growth indices, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, root vitality, stomatal density, soluble protein, sugars and accumulation of secondary metabolites.

Results. Supplementation of BL had a positive effect on A. roxburghii growth, and secondary metabolite accumulation, leaf number, stem diameter, fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll a content , and secondary metabolite (total flavonoids, total polyphenols) content increased significantly. YL treatment showed significantly higher soluble sugar and polysaccharide contents.

Discussion. BL treatment was conducive to promoting the growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, total polyphenols); YL treatment caused the content of soluble sugar and polysaccharides to increase significantly. Polysaccharides are an important medicinal ingredient in Anoectochilus, so future research will focus on the combination of blue and yellow light.

December 5, 2017
Similar to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), disease relapse occurs in unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) even the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are fully matched between donor and recipient. A total of fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the region of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been reported previously by Petersdorf et al. (Blood 2013;121:1896-1905) and Piras et al . ( Bone Marrow Transplant. 2014;49:1400-1404) to associate with transplantation determinants post-HSCT. The genomic sequences within 500 base pairs upstream and downstream of the fourteen HSCT-related SNPs were analyzed in this study to investigate whether geneticvariants within the MHC region are associated with disease relapse of unrelated HLA-matched CBT. A panel of seven SNPs was revealed to associate with the risk of relapse after unrelated CBT after analysis of fifty-three donor-recipient pairs. These SNPs included the donor type SNPs of rs2523675 and rs2518028 at the telomeric end of HCP5 gene, rs 2071479 in the intron of HLA-DOB gene, and rs 2523958 in the MICD gene; and the recipient type SNPs of rs 9276982 in the HLA-DOA gene and rs435766 and rs 380924 in the MICD gene. These SNPs have not yet been reported to associate with the transplant outcome of HSCT, implying that different SNPs were associated with the effectiveness of unrelated HSCT and CBT. As measured by pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD), the SNP of rs2523675 had high LD with the SNPs of rs4713466 (D’ = 0.86) and rs2523676 (D’ = 0.91) in the HCP5 gene. The SNP of rs2518028 had no LD with all other SNPs except rs2523675. This study provides a basis to meliorate strategies of searching and selecting better candidate donors for unrelated CBT.
December 4, 2017
This comprehensive review focuses on comparative data in nonhuman primates and humans in relation to signaling secondary sex characteristics (SSC), sexual behavior, and neurophysiology of sexuality during the female cycle. Obviously, sexual activities of primates are not limited to specific cycle phases. In higher evolved primate species no distinction can be drawn between sexual interactions as a prerequisite for reproduction or as a pleasurable tool. However, cyclic depended changes of body morphology and behavior, such as feeding, risk taking, mood changes, are documented for both groups. Neurophysiologically, homologous brain areas, sex steroids and receptor compartments are involved in mediating sexual and pleasure during all cycle stages. The interaction between the subcortical reward system and the social brain network and its projection to the prefrontal cortex are of importance. The advertising of SSC indicate analogous strategies between human one male social units and multifemale-multimale groups in nonhuman primates. Women do advertise SSC permanently after the onset of puberty. In contrast, some nonhuman primate species express attractive signals during specific cycle stages and prolong them beyond fertile periods. The physiological and morphological nature of primate SSC and their flexibility of expression in relation to their information content for males will be discussed during different cycle periods for both groups. Because of permanent sexual attractiveness in humans the use of clothes as a specific eye catcher to advertise SSC in relation to biological function will be illustrated. The latter is suggested to be an example of culture-biology adaptation in human sexual behavior.
December 1, 2017
Objectives: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a highly heterogeneous syndrome which exhibits significant differences in the underlying causes, responses to treatment and prognosis. It is mandatory to make subtypes of ARDS to guideline clinical treatment and trial design. The study aimed to identify subtypes of ARDS using latent class analysis. Design: The study was a secondary analysis of the EDEN study which was a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008 to April 12, 2011. The primary study endpoint was death through 90-day follow up. Latent class analysis was performed incorporating variables on day 1 after enrollment. The number of classes was chosen by maximum log-likelihood, Akaike Information Criterion and the number of patients in each class. Setting: secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Patients: patients within 48 hours of developing ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation. Interventions: none. Measurements and main results: A total of 1000 patients were enrolled in the study, including 233 non-survivors and 767 survivors. The latent class analysis identified three classes of ARDS. Class 1 (hemodynamically stable type) had significantly higher survival rate (p=0.015) and cumulative incidence of unassisted breathing (p=0.016) than class 2 (non-SIRS type) and 3 (SIRS type) through 90 days follow up. There was significant interaction between cumulative fluid balance and the class (p=0.03). While more fluid balance was beneficial for class 2, it was harmful for class 1 and 3. Conclusions: The study identified three classes of ARDS, which showed different clinical presentations, responses to fluid therapy and prognosis. The classification system used simple clinical variables and could help to design ARDS trials in the future. Trial registration: NCT00609180. Registered February 6, 2008.

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