[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
Background. ‘Who is doing what’ is the ultimate open question in microbiome study. Shotgun metagenomics is often applied to gain knowledge of functional roles for bacteria in microbial communities, where the data can be used to predict protein encoding genes and enzymatic pathways present in the community, sometimes leading to testable hypotheses for microbial function. This study describes a method and basic analysis for a metagenomic adaptation of the double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol for reduced representation metagenome profiling.
Methods. This technique takes advantage of the sequence specificity of restriction endonucleases to construct an Illumina-compatible sequencing library containing DNA fragments that are between a pair of restriction sites located within close proximity. This results in a reduced sequencing library with coverage breadth that can be tuned by size selection. We assessed the performance of the metagenomic ddRADseq approach by applying the full method to human stool samples and generating sequence data.
Results. The ddRADseq data yields a similar estimate of community taxonomic profile as obtained from shotgun metagenome sequencing of the same human stool samples. This reduced representation generated by ddRADseq is also found to be unbiased with regards to the G+C content of the individual species detected.
Discussion. Although ddRADseq does introduce some bias in taxonomic representation, the bias is likely to be small relative to DNA extraction bias. ddRADseq appears feasible and could have value as a tool for metagenome-wide association studies.
Background. Child mental health problems are now recognised as a key public health concern. Parenting programs have been developed as one solution to reduce children’s risk of developing mental health problems. However, their potential for widespread dissemination is hindered by low parental engagement, which includes intent to enrol, enrolment, and attendance. To increase parental engagement in preventive parenting programs, we need a better understanding of the predictors of engagement, and the strategies that can be used to enhance engagement.
Method. Employing a PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of the predictors of parent engagement and engagement enhancement strategies in preventive parenting programs. Key inclusion criteria included: (1) the intervention is directed primarily at the parent, (2) parent age >18 years, and the article is (3) written in English and (4) published between 2004-2016. Stouffer’s method of combining p-values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable.
Results. Twenty-three articles reported a variety of predictors of parental engagement and engagement strategies. Only one of eleven predictors (child mental health symptoms) demonstrating a reliable association with enrolment (Stouffer’s p<.01).
Discussion. There was a lack of consistent evidence for predictors of parental engagement. Nonetheless, preliminary evidence suggests that engagement enhancement strategies modelled on Health Behaviour Theories (e.g. Health Belief Model; Theory of Planned Behaviour) may increase parents’ engagement.
Background The radish cultivars were famous for containing natural red pigment (Red Radish pigment), as produced in Chongqing Fuling, named red pigment radish. However, genetic resources of red pigment radish are scarcely paid attention in recent years. Thus, the molecular mechanisms for red pigment formation is necessary and urgent to investigate, thereby enriching the genetic resources of red pigment radish.
Methods In this study, fleshy root transcriptomes of six different color radishes with differential pigment content were obtained using NGS sequencing and de novo assembly respectively. Subsequently, phylogenetic relationship of these radishes was constructed using concatenate method. In addition, comparative transcriptomics analysis was also used to identify putative candidate genes involved in red pigment synthesis in red pigment radish.
Results 4,488 one-to-one orthologs were obtained between six different fleshy root color radishes. Results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that red pigment radish were grouped into one clade from two different cultivars, while the white skin with white flesh cultivar located at the base clade of cultivar radishes. Molecular evolution analysis showed that 58, 68 and 105 genes were identified under selection using Branch site model, Branch model and Clade model respectively along the linage of red pigment radish. Further analysis showed that 12 genes may be considered as candidate genes involved in red pigment formation, including transcription factors comprised of KUA1, bHLH155, ERF4 and ERF012.
Discussion Our transcriptome data will provide the valuable genetic resources for further study on red pigment radish. Phylogenetic relationship obtained from our transcriptome data showed that molecular classifications of cultivar radish group are in consistent with the traditional taxonomic classifications based on root skin and flesh color. And 12 putative candidate genes identified from molecular evolution analysis should be considered further to uncover the genetic mechanism for red pigment formation. Together, our study may open the door for investigating the molecular evolution of red pigment radish cultivars.
Background: The perioperative period is important for patient outcome. Colorectal cancer surgery can lead to metastatic disease due to release of disseminated tumor cells and the induction of surgical stress response. To explore the overall effects on surgically-induced changes in serum composition, in vitro model systems are useful.
Methods: A systematic search in Pubmed and Embase was performed to identify studies describing in vitro models used to investigate cancer cell growth/proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion and cell death of serum taken pre- and postoperatively from patients undergoing colorectal tumor resection.
Results: Two authors (MG and TK) independently reviewed 870 identified studies and identified 5 studies, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Disagreements were solved by discussion. All studies investigated cell proliferation and cell invasion, whereas three studies investigated cell migration, and only one study investigated cell death/apoptosis. One study investigated postoperative peritoneal infection due to anastomotic leak, one study investigated mode of anesthesia (general anesthesia with volatile or intravenous anesthetics), and one study investigated preoperative intervention with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). In all studies an increased proliferation, cell migration and invasion was demonstrated after surgery. Anesthetics with propofol and intervention with GMCSF significantly reduced postoperative cell proliferation, whereas peritoneal infection enhanced the invasive capability of tumor cells.
Conclusion: This study suggests that in vitro cell models are useful and reliable tools to explore the effect of surgery on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and metastatic ability. The models should therefore be considered as additional tests to investigate the effects of perioperative interventions.
Objectives. To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes.
Method. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n=63) and mothers of children without diabetes (n=114). The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life.
Results. Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain).
Conclusion. In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.
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