[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
Background. Good results of drug-eluting balloon (DEB) use are achieved in in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions, small vessel disease, long lesions, and bifurcations. However, few reports exist about DEB use in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ISR. This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy of DEB for acute MI with ISR.
Methods. Between November 2011 and December 2015, 117 consecutive patients experienced acute MI including ST-segment elevation MI, and non-ST-segment elevation MI due to ISR, and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We divided our patients into two groups: (1) PCI with further DEB, and (2) PCI with further drug-eluting stent (DES). Clinical outcomes such as target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, recurrent MI, stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were analyzed.
Results. Patients’ average age was 68.37 ± 11.41 years; 69.2 % were male. A total of 75 patients were enrolled in the DEB group, and 42 patients were enrolled in the DES group. The baseline characteristics between the two groups were the same without statistical differences except gender. The major adverse cardiac cerebral events rate (34.0 % vs. 35.7 %; p=0.688) and cardiovascular mortality rate (11.7 % vs. 12.8 %; p=1.000) were similar in both groups.
Conclusions. DEB is a reasonable strategy for Acute MI with ISR. Compared with DES, DEB an alternative strategy which yielded acceptable short-term outcomes and similar 1-year clinical outcomes.
Introduction: Inappropriate benzodiazepines (BZD) and z-drugs use in older populations is associated with a variety of sociodemographic and health-related factors. Recent studies reported that inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use is associated with increased age, female gender, and severe negative psychological (e.g. depression) and somatic (e.g. chronic disease) factors. The current study explores the sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use in older people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among randomly selected patients of one health insurance (“AOK North-West”) with BZD and z-drugs prescriptions in the past 12 months. The sample was stratified by appropriateness to German prescription guidelines (yes vs. no) and age (50-65 vs. >65 years). To examine the association of selected sociodemographic and psychological variables (e.g. sex, employment status, quality of life, depression) with inappropriate use a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: In total, data of 340 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 72.1 (SD=14.5) years, and the most commonly used substances were zopiclon (38.1%), oxazepam (18.1%), and lorazepam (13.8%). The mean defined daily dose (DDD) was 0.73 (SD=0.47). Insomnia was the main reason for prescribing BZD and z-drugs. Inappropriate use of BZD and z-drugs is significantly associated with unemployment (OR=2.9, 95%-CI: 1.2-7.1) and general problematic medication use (OR=0.5, 95%-CI: 0.2-1.0).
Discussion: Unemployment status and problematic medication use have a significant association with potentially inappropriate prescription of BZD and z-drugs. Divergent patterns of prescription might harbor problematic patterns of BZD and z-drugs use. The causal connection between the identified factors and problematic BZD and z-drugs prescription is not released in this paper.
Conclusion: The employment status and possible evidence of inadequate drug use may be a warning signal for the prescriber of BZD and z-drugs.
Background: China has the largest lead–acid battery (LAB) industry and market around the world, and this situation causes unavoidable emissions of Pb and other pollutants.
Methods: On the basis of a field survey on a starting–lighting–ignition (SLI) LAB plant in Zhejiang Province, this study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methods to assess the environmental impacts and environment-related costs derived from the LAB industry during the life phases, including material preparation, battery assembly, transportation, and regeneration, of the plant.
Results: Material preparation and regeneration phases contribute 3.4 and 42.2 g to Pb emission, respectively, and result in 3.29×108 CHY of environmental cost for each function unit (1 KVA·h LAB capacity). The material preparation phase is the largest mass contributor to global warming potential (GWP, 97%), photo-chemical oxidation potential (POCP, 88.9%), and eutrophication potential (EP, 82.5%) and produces 2.68×108 CHY of environmental cost.
Discussion: Decision makers in the Chinese LAB industry should replace the pyrogenic process in smelting with the use of clean energy, increase the lead recovery rate while producing the same capacity of LABs, and develop new technologies to reduce heavy metal emission, especially in the regeneration phase.
Background. Freemartinism is a condition generally occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most domestic animals such as bovine, sheep, goat and pig in this condition are sterile, but still about 15% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. However, farmers in China culled almost all bovine fertile heterosexual twin females directly due to lack of practical diagnostic approach, resulting in substantial economic and genetic-material losses both for Chinese dairy and beef industry.
Methods. In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was conducted to confirm the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were selected for this study, with three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows served as positive and negative control, respectively.
Results. PCR results showed that three heterosexual twin females were absent of SRY gene whereas only two of them were subsequently verified as fertile. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was over 14.2% in freemartin and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical differences between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female.
Discussion. Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR, rather than qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, is the most accurate method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got the relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We declare for the first time that it is the content of SRY gene, rather than its presence or absence, that determines the fertility of a heterosexual twin female.
Background.Anoectochilus roxburghii is a widespread herbaceous plant with high medicinal value. Wild A. roxburghii resources are facing extinction due to their slow growth rate and over-exploitation. The growing market demand has led to advances in the field of artificial planting of A. roxburghii. Methods to increase the economic benefits of cultivation and the production of medicinal ingredients are thus very useful.
Methods.A. roxburghii was exposed to red light (RL), blue light (BL), yellow light (YL), green light (GL) or white light (WL) as supplemental lighting at night (18:00-02:00) in a greenhouse or was left in darkness (control, CK) to investigate the effects of various light qualities on growth indices, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, root vitality, stomatal density, soluble protein, sugars and accumulation of secondary metabolites.
Results. Supplementation of BL had a positive effect on A. roxburghii growth, and secondary metabolite accumulation, leaf number, stem diameter, fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll a content , and secondary metabolite (total flavonoids, total polyphenols) content increased significantly. YL treatment showed significantly higher soluble sugar and polysaccharide contents.
Discussion. BL treatment was conducive to promoting the growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, total polyphenols); YL treatment caused the content of soluble sugar and polysaccharides to increase significantly. Polysaccharides are an important medicinal ingredient in Anoectochilus, so future research will focus on the combination of blue and yellow light.
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