[Experimental] List of manuscripts available for review volunteers
Objectives. To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes.
Method. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n=63) and mothers of children without diabetes (n=114). The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life.
Results. Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain).
Conclusion. In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.
Background. The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a highly infectious disease that has claimed over 25,000 cases in the past 50 years. While many past outbreaks of EVD resulted in relatively few incidents, the 2014 outbreak in West Africa was the most deadly occurrence of EVD to date producing over 15,000 confirmed cases.
Objective. In this study we relate total confirmed case counts of EVD to predictor variables at the region level in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea.
Methods. We used a Poisson framework and negative binomial framework to relate the predictors to the outcome. A spatial analysis was conducted to further our understanding and help interpret results.
Results. Results indicate that the percent of the population living in urban areas, percent of household with a bad quality or no toilet, and percent of married men working in blue collar jobs protect against the transmission of EVD. Our study also shows that mean years of education contributes to increased case counts of the disease.
Conclusions. Each significant predictor are associated with the types of dynamics that either protect against, or exacerbate, the spread of EVD. While having limited contact with the bodily fluids of others, reduced person-to-person contact, and isolated population clusters protect against the spread of EVD, the types of daily interactions an educated individual will experience leads to higher incidence rates. This information can be used to identify potential transmission routes and prevent future outbreak of this deadly disease.
Background: Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) has immunomodulatory activities on porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The immunomodulatory effects of APS on porcine endothelial cells (ECs) expose to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) remain unknown.
Methods: The virus was titrated using an indirect immune biotin enzyme standard method to confirm that porcine ECs were susceptible to CSFV infection and to determine the TCID50 of CSFV (C-strain). Porcine ECs were cultured with CSFV in the presence of APS. Relative quantitative PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of factors that influence EC adhesion and immunity.
Results: The expression of adhesion factors mRNA increased following stimulation with CSFV; this effect was inhibited by pre-exposing the cells to APS. In addition, the expression of growth factors and some immune factors increased after infection with CSFV; this increase in tissue factor (TF), transforming growth factor (TGF-β), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) could be inhibited by the addition of APS. The immune response mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in ECs may be unregulated by CSFV as it was also inhibited by pre-treatment with APS.
Discussion: The addition of APS to the culture can obviously regulate the expression of molecules related to the adhesion, growth, and immune response of ECs, as well as the production of cytokines. Therefore, it may have the potential to be an effective component in vaccines against CSFV.
Despite most Spatial Data Infrastructures are offering service-based visualization of geospatial data, requirements are often at a very basic level leading to poor quality of maps. This is a general observation for any geospatial architecture as soon as open standards as those of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) shall be applied. To improve the situation, this paper does focus on improvements at the portrayal interoperability side by considering standardization aspects. We propose two major redesign recommendations. First to consolidate the cartographic theory at the core of the OGC Symbology Encoding standard. Secondly to build the standard in a modular way so as to be ready to be extended with upcoming future cartographic requirements.
Thus, we start by defining portrayal interoperability by means of typical use cases that frame the concept of sharing cartography. Then we bring to light the strengths and limits of the relevant open standards to consider in this context. Finally we propose a set of recommendations to overcome the limits so as to make these use cases a true reality.
Even if the definition of a cartographic-oriented standard is not able to act as a complete cartographic design framework by itself, we argue that pushing forward the standardization work dedicated to cartography is a way to share and disseminate good practices and finally to improve the quality of the visualizations.
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