A child who walks barefoot in the city on a relatively level surface is different from a child who lives in a rural community who has to traverse rugged terrain. If you look at a child from a rural community you will find their toes paw the ground with each step as they use their toes for grip and traction. If they walk in sneakers in soft sand one can see the imprint of the arch and the toe paw as their feet are strong enough to distort the shoe.
In my country we have under 12 track and field championships and the children from poorer schools still train barefoot on grass or dirt tracks. Some children still compete barefoot on our artificial track although it is less common now